Whereas, some drugs simultaneously modify both the apoprotein and the prosthetic heme group of CYP enzymes. For example, spironolactone (antihypertensive drug) is irreversible inhibitor of the CYP2C and CYP3A subfamilies (Juinn et. al., 1998). 1. Heme Alkylation: Drugs containing terminal double-bond (olefins) or triple-bond (acetylenes) can oxidized by CYPs to potent radical intermediates, which alkylate the prosthetic heme group and inactivate the enzyme.
In contrary, the antagonist drugs act as the blocker the way of the body’s natural agonist and also they avoid cell response to agonist. However, these two totally different target receptors can actually be used together. For example, in the case of Asthma. In the respiratory tract, albuterol will stick to the adrenergic receptors so the smooth muscle will relax and expand the airways, also known as bronchodilation. At the same time, the antagonist drugs, ipratropium, attaches to cholinergic receptors and obstruct the attachment of acetylcholine and limit the airways which called bronchoconstriction.
it is often inhibitory with the effect of presynaptic inhibition ,making neurotransmitters self regulating . EXAMPLE: One example of the neurons of SNS that release the noradrinaline which beside forms the affecting postsynaptic receptors alsoaffect alpha 2 adrenergic receptors inhibiting the further release of noradrenaline this effect is utilized by chlonidine to perform inhibitory effect on
Similarly, a slower decrease in absorbance corresponds to a low rate of reaction. Through altering the various concentrations of NaCl that Amylase is exposed to, the effect of different NaCl concentrations on rate of reaction of amylase can be determined. Research Question: What are the effects of different sodium chloride concentrations on the rate of reaction of amylase, measured the spectrophotometry. Hypothesis: Sodium chloride, temperature, pH levels are all conditions that affect the activity of an enzyme. These conditions may denature the enzyme, decreasing its rate of reaction.
Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) leads to symptoms of the disease. How this loss occurs is not known, but generation of ROS are considered important mediators. Oxidation of dopamine by enzymes leads to the formation of H2O2, which is usually inactivated in a reaction involving glutathione, but can react with Fe2+ and form highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. In PD, GSH levels have been reported to be decreased in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the severity of the disease correlates with GSH loss. How this oxidative stress occurs is not well understood, as GSH synthase levels have been shown to be normal in the substantia nigra.
increase in Ca levels and hypersensitivity reaction.2,3 There are many classes of Diuretics such as loop diuretics, potassium sparing, thiazide, osmotic diuretics. They are classified according to mechanism of action, site of action, chemical class and effect on urine electrolytes. Each class vary widely in its efficacy.1,2 At the 16th century, calomel (mercurrous chloride) was used as diuretic, but its poor absorption from the GIT limited its use and was replaced by the organomerrcurials(chlormerodin) which was highly effective, but unfortunately its parenteral use and possibility of toxicity and tolerance limited their use and they are no longer used, so scientists searched for more safe and effective
Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. It seems that some other molecules within living organisms are able to sufficiently break down hydrogen peroxide—enough to sustain life. The toxic nature of hydrogen peroxide also makes it a powerful disinfectant. And in conclusion from the information ive found ,catalase functions best at around 37 degrees Celsius as the temperature gets colder or hotter than that, the ability to work will denature and the enzyme will be
Another specialized protein called a transporter removes dopamine from the synapse to be recycled for further use.8 Drugs of abuse can interfere with this normal communication process. For example, cocaine acts by binding to the dopamine transporter, blocking the removal of dopamine from the synapse. Dopamine then accumulates in the synapse to produce an amplified signal to the receiving neurons. This is what causes the euphoria commonly experienced immediately after taking the drug Signs and Symptoms of Drug
It prevents photodegradation of certain vitamins such as Riboflavin, Carotenoids, Tocopherol, and Folate. It is a powerful free body scavenger and antioxidants, as it ligates the toxic metal ions with its carboxylate and phenolic hydroxyl group and sequester their effects, protecting the rest of the cells. It prevents the UV and high-frequency visible light to pass into the eyes and facilitates the clear visions. Neuromelanins in the substantia nigra of brain protects neurons by chelating metals and xenobiotics.Deficiency of this neuromelanin in brain results in PARKINSONISM. So Melanin is really divine for human life, isn't it??
As their name indicates, these hormones are soluble in water. Water-soluble hormones are unable to pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and are therefore dependent upon receptor molecules on the surface of cells. When a water-soluble hormone binds to a receptor molecule on the surface of a cell, it triggers a reaction inside of the cell. This reaction may change a factor inside of the cell such as the permeability of the membrane or the activation of another molecule. A common reaction is to cause molecules of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to be synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) present in the cell.
One example is blocking neuronal transporter (NET), thus blocking the uptake of amines by nerve terminals, by competition for the binding site of the amine transporter. This raises the level of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft, increasing CNS activity. Morphine: In the nociceptive neurons pathway, opioid drug or also called opiates. Opioids are agonists that act on opioid receptors coupled to Gi/Go-protein-coupled receptors and exert powerful effects on ion channels on neuronal membranes. Opioids helps opening of potassium channel to cause hyperpolarization of the cell and inhibit the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels.
Temporal lobe epilepsy is known to being resistant to medication, which is why current research is investigating how G- proteins can become activated by the mu opioid receptor selective peptide (DAMGO) and nociception (Temp Lobe G). Another aspect examined is the binding to mu and nociception (NOP) receptors and adenylyl cyclase (AC) in the neocortex, which is the region of the brain associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (Temp). By comparing the levels of [3H]DAMGO binding and stimulation, it was concluded that epileptics with temporal lobe seizure were found to have changes in the mu opioid and NOP receptor binding and, also, the downstream receptors were found to have alterations in their signal transduction mechanisms
Acetylcholine travels from the neuromuscular junction and binds to acetylcholine receptors which are activated and generate a muscle contraction. In myasthenia gravis, antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the muscle contraction
Sickness symptoms are the results of interaction between pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α, and interleukin-6, which damage the fundamental serotonin mechanism (Dantzer et al., 2008). The last theory of depression is the monoamine-deficiency theory. It simply believes that depressive symptoms are caused by depletion of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine, in the brain (Hasler, 2010). Monoaminergic systems participate in the organization of extensive cognitive functions, such as reward processing, attention, mood, sleep, and appetite (Hasler,
The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidney and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. Each conducts a different function. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland and produces steroids such as aldosterone which reabsorbs sodium and releases potassium. The adrenal cortex is vital to sustain life. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and produces adrenaline hormones such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that are used in sudden stress