When Henry VIII received a daughter rather than a son, he believed he was being punished for marrying and sleeping with Catherine, his brother’s wife, and he sought an annulment. After Catherine’s nephew, Charles V, held the pope hostage to prevent the annulment, Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell, two Protestants, decided to help Henry VIII to get him away from the church. After getting him an annulment, Henry made himself the head of the new church due to the Act of Supremacy. This lead to the Dissolution, which took the wealth and land from the church and gave it back to Henry. After he wrote a new Bible, had a son with his third wife, and aided the Protestant Reformation, he died.
The vulnerability of this transforming empire allowed it to be attacked by Germanic tribes and other warring nations. One of the Germanic tribes, the Franks, led by the Frankish warrior Clovis, would establish a kingdom in modern-day France by 496 A.D. Unfortunately, the successive kings of the Frankish people would be very weak rulers and were known as the do-nothing kings. This succession of kings offered the people under them no protection from roaming warriors. Therefore, due to a lack of security, the king gave away large tracts of land to other aristocrats (maior domus) if they would pledge their loyalty to the king.
1) Challenges against the newly-formed Third Republic, started right after its foundation. Although overwhelming defeat against Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War in 1880-81 was the Second Empire’s fault, peace deal signed between the Third Republic and Prussia. Republic, even from its very beginning, lost significant prestige and France’s “grandeur” (greatness) in the eyes of her rivals both inside and outside. On the one hand, monarchist, which hold the majority in parliament expects the humiliation of the Republic and republicans in order to proclaim a new system and the third empire, on the other hand, Unification of the German Empire created a vital threat not just the French influence in Europe also French sovereignty itself. In addition to that, the Republic had challenges in the system itself between making reforms to implement a fully democratic order and creating a secular republic which create “état laic”.
(Gibbon, Decline and fall, 39) The practices of Christianity ran contrary to the aristocratic values of Graeco-Roman culture. (Heather, 2005) However, there were also contradictions to Gibbon’s argument of Christianity about “whether endowing Christianity involved an overall transfer of asserts from secular to religious offers. ”(Heather, 2005, p 123) “Some pagans claimed that the sack of Rome in 410 was because people had abandoned traditional gods.
Author of the book, Becoming Charlemagne, by Jeff Sypeck provides a clear glimpse into the life of one of the world’s greatest kings and ruler and later emperor Charlemagne, otherwise known as Karl or Charles the Great. Sypeck creates a vivid and strong look into the time of Charlemagne, early medieval Europe and some other important world leaders, including Pope Leo III, Irene the Byzantine emperor, Alcuin the scholar and Harun al-Rashid ruler of Baghdad. These figures are crucial to the story of Karl becoming Charlemagne, and their stories included in the book help form and symbolize Charlemagne the Ruler. Understanding Charlemagne and early medieval Europe is presented vibrantly throughout the book by in-depth stories, facts and a clear
on the other hand saw a new precedence in the history of the West. The crowning of Charlemagne by Pope Leo II . Pope Leo III's election as the pope in 795 was contested by the aristocracy and he was imprisoned. His escape to Charlemagne set for a series of events in which the latter had to defend Pope Leo III. In the background of all of this, the Pope had offered suzerainty to Charlemagne, an offer too lucrative to be refused by the latter.
The breaking point of tranquility occured in the Byzantine Empire, as the Seljuk Turks invaded. The Seljuk Turks were populous in Central Asia, and were not Arab Muslims, meaning that they were not part of the Islamic Caliphates. This is shown as the Seljuk Turks invaded the Islamic Caliphate capital, Baghdad. Throughout the rest of the 11th Century, the Seljuk Turks continued to conquer areas of the Byzantine Empire. This led to the “unforeseen” circumstance, in 1095, where Byzantine Empire’s Emperor, Alexius I, urged Pope Urban II, of the Catholic Kingdoms, for aid against the Seljuk Turks (Ellis 215-216).
Tensions developed between the Eastern and Western Churches over political, social and theological differences over beliefs and practices of religious. The Western theologians considered themselve as aids to devotion did not like the fact that the Byzantine did not agree. The Influence of Byzantium in Eastern Europe called themselves Romaioi, and was traced from their ancestors back to the Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantines divided thenselves from the Mediterranean Society of Classical Rome.
The Carolingians further ingratiated themselves with the Church by becoming the protectors of Rome, and specifically, the Pope. The Pope did not believe that his protector, the Emperor of Constantinople, would be able to protect him from the invading Lombard armies, so he turned to another Germanic kingdom, who he hoped, could stop the Lombards. Both Pippin and his son Charlemagne warred against the Lombards for significant portions of their reigns, however, Charlemagne finally defeated them in 774. War and the Church went hand-in-hand for the Carolingians with many of their wars having a religious undertone. For instance, the wars in Saxony and Bavaria started as a missionary war, the war against the Lombards, for the Pope, and later wars in Germany because of sacrilegious events.
By 1871, Otto Von Bismarck had accomplished total German Unification, which included the Southern German States. In my essay, I will analyse how Bismarck used combined politics in order to preserve his power over Germany, the role of the wars against France, Austria and Denmark and how it influenced German politics. I will also discuss how historians have describes his politics as Bonapartist and the previous actions already in place when he was appointed Minister President of Prussia. Throughout his political career, Bismarck used combines politics as a method of maintaining power in an ever politically shifting country.
Licinius inevitably reneged on the Order of Milan as he collided with Constantine over control of the domain. In another war, Constantine vanquished Licinius, which reaffirmed his conviction that the Christian God was on his side, and permitted him to legitimize Christianity all through the domain. He assembled another capital city in the east, Constantinople, loaded with chapels and committed to the Christian God. Researchers keep on debating the degree and nature of Constantine 's Christianity. As ruler, he sanctioned Christianity, he supported the development of new houses of worship, advanced Christians to high workplaces in the administration, and gave unique rights, for example, charge exceptions, to the Christian pastorate.
More gained fame from his publication and gained the attention of King Henry VIII. He became councillor to the king and later, Lord High Chancellor of England. He opposed the Protestant Reformation and Martin Luther 's theology, believing they were dangerous to the Catholic Church and to society as a whole. He often times debated with Martin Luther on the king 's behalf. He could not support the king, however, in his decision to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Through the years , Christianity was one of the most questioned religion. Although , Christianity became a ruling religion in the European and Western world. Religion became a state of the Roman Empire, and Christianity became an enormous and influential religion nationwide . Some still wonder why and how religion has shaped through centuries, yet it’s clear that it is and was one of the most important events in history. Christianity changed the western world in so many different ways during the Middle ages and adapted now in the global world since The Enlightenment.
The fall of the Roman Empire in Western Europe can undeniably be accredited to the radical shifts in the Empire’s military as well as the belligerent and selfish policies of the Imperial court. From tragic reforms to faltering loyalties, the legions of the 4th and 5th centuries were dichotomies of the ironclad soldiers that conquered Europe; nor were the Emperor and Senate the ideal governing system that had maintained an Empire for centuries. The combination of external and internal pressures that completely changed the face of Rome’s legions also attributed to her eventual collapse in the West. The armies that once claimed the world from Spain to Syria and Britain to Egypt were transformed into sub-par soldiers. This occurred at a time of
The revolution occurred because Charles II’s son, James II, was an overt Catholic, which did not sit well with the predominantly Protestant public. The crown retained the right to veto bills and to pardon whomever he or she chose. Freedom of speech