Charles Darwin's Theory Of Evolution (Darwinism)

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Darwin’s theory of evolution (Darwinism)
Charles Darwin was an English naturalist. In the 19th century, he travelled around the world to discover the variations in plants and animal. Darwin became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies with his theory of evolution by “natural selection”. He explained his ideas on evolution in a book called, “On the Origin of Species”, released in 1859. Darwin’s ideas harvested a lot of controversy, and even today, as it conflicts with religious views about the creation of the world and the living beings in it.

How did he come to the study of evolution?
After Darwin graduated from Christ’s College in 1831, he began to develop much interest in collecting specimens of one sort or another and pondering
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It sought to explain how the characteristics of a species change over time and how new species can evolve from earlier ones. These diverse groups of animals evolve from one or a few common ancestors. The mechanism by which this evolution occurs is “natural selection”. What is natural selection? Natural selection is the process by which living organisms change over time as a result of changes in their genetic makeup (DNA). If the changes in an animal allows it to adapt to its environment, this change will allow it to also survive and have more offspring (and pass it’s strong genetics to its children and grandchildren, which will also allow them to survive in different environments). Natural selection can bring change in species in small ways. The population can have change in color or size over the course of several generations. Such phenomenon is explained by “microevolution”. However, natural selection does not only entail small changes. If given enough time and enough accumulated changes, natural selection can even create entirely new species. It can change dinosaurs into birds, apes into humans and amphibious mammals into…show more content…
Genetic mutation (changes at the level of DNA and genes) makes the natural selection happen. Mutations can be as a result of chemical or radiation damage or errors in DNA replication. Mutation can also be intentionally induced in order to adapt to a rapidly changing environment.

Ernst Mayr Categories of Darwinism
Darwin’s theory of evolution or Darwinism can be divided into 5 parts (Ernst Mayr):
I “Evolution as such” – he supported the ability of species to change over time.
II Common Descent – he felt that all of the diversity of life on earth emerged out of the evolution from one or a few common ancestors.
III Gradualism – Darwin felt evolution as a slow process, taking place in innumerable small steps, even slower than the changes that take place within few generations. For him, it takes much longer to change.
IV Population Speciation – Within a population, change in a species occurs as the balance of hereditary characteristics shifts across that
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