American Literature is the literary area which contains many of the most renowned writers in English. Although it is the literary area of America, its literary tradition begins with the tradition of British Literature. But now it has its own literary tradition. Most of the American writers proved that their novels are the reflection of the society in which they are grown up. Moreover, the political writings in American Literature discussed the social issues like liberty, education system of modern culture etc.
Industries employed large numbers of people, but still in extreme working conditions with few to no rights and towns became associated with illnesses, drink and prostitution. At the same time, thanks to the work of philosophers and writers like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, attention was drawn to injustices and inequalities in the society and important social reform introduced. John Stuart Mill was a philosopher and social reformer who campaigned for votes for women and liberalism; he is one of the founders of the utilitarian society. Utilitarianism is a
As a prolific Victorian writer of novels, plays, novellas, and non-fictional prose including letters, Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) became known all over the world for his remarkable characters, his mastery of prose, and his depictions of the social classes, customs and values of his times. Some believed that he was a staunch defender of the working classes and has often been celebrated as a champion of the oppressed and the downtrodden. But it has sometimes been noted that both in his journalism and fiction he expresses attitudes that can be interpreted as racist and xenophobic. He opposed slavery but defended colonialists against their native attackers and opposed suffrage for blacks on grounds of cultural superiority.
Victorian writers can be divided in three categories: the early Victorians, the mid Victorians and the late Victorians. The early Victorians include William Makepeace Thackeray, who portrayed the upper-middle class as a cruel, ruthless society and Elizabeth Gaskell, who described the conflicts between workers and employers in industrial towns, but Charles Dickens is one of the most famous and outstanding authors from that period and is an example of an early Victorian writer. In his novels he often used realism as a way to deal with problems like poverty, homelessness and bad education. Despite these themes, his novels had almost always a happy ending, where good triumphs over evil. Charles Dickens was born in Hampshire in 1812, but grew up in London, where he was sent to work in a factory at the age of 12.
He wrote a sign for Jim that says, “Sick Arab—but harmless when not out of his head”(132). The Duke’s words are extremely hypocritical towards Christianity because as a Christian one must practice what our religion preaches, and the Duke does not have an ounce of tolerance. Religion does not define oneself. Does it mean that Arabs are bad just because they do not share one’s believes? Bad is the Christian that dares to think this way.
Charles Dickens was strongly critical of the utilitarian principles and ideals through his novel Hard Times, particularly the notion of weath división which left the rich more rich and the poor poorer (Ibid,7). Charles Dickens is well known for his novel Hard Times, He had been writing about the plight of the urban poor and he clearly portrayed English poverty in a more realistic way because he was part of it. One of his greatest achievements was to bring the problems and hard conditions of poverty to the attention of his readers through presenting varieties of poor persons (Ibid,8). Charles Dickens built up sympathy for his heroes of the street while convinced the reader of the harshness of the aristocrats, and any other Dickens’s villain and criminal. Dickens’s characters are all wonderful, and so vivid that the reader begins to know them on a personal level by the end of each novel (Gholami and Joodaki, 2014:7) .
‘Hard Times’ by Charles Dickens is a social protest novel of nineteenth-century England. Throughout the novel, Dickens makes his voice of protest explicitly clear as he expresses the hardship and inequalities of an industrial, hierarchical society. Dickens portrays how difficult life was through all the characters and their positions in society. Several social and political issues are addressed by Dickens, particularly through education, marriage, divorce and the working conditions of the poor. In Book 1, Chapter 11, Stephen Blackpool reflects these issues through his line “Tis aw a muddle.” It could be argued that this remark by Blackpool refers to the power structures within the novel and how the ‘muddle’ is caused by those with power.
For this reason, there was much abundance, but societal inequity as well. In fact, this period 's entertainment was based on social class. For instance, Victorian literature was varied in characters and plot events, lengthy, realistic, and relatable to what the urban lifestyle was like to all classes. Social standards to what was considered to be moral and upright in that time were portrayed in various works, such as behaviors and stereotypical conducts for men and women alike. Not to mention, religion was another predominant theme that influenced Victorian literature, for topics
The roles of childhood is a significant theme within both Charles Dickens’s ‘Hard Times’ and William Blake’s ‘The Songs of Innocence and Experience’. Despite the fact that these texts were written nearly sixty years apart, they both portray similar messages about how children were treated within eighteenth and nineteenth century England. Dickens was highly critical of the Victorian education system, and his views are depicted explicitly within his novel ‘Hard Times’. Dickens believed that children should be taught to use their imagination and to think for themselves as well as being taught facts. Furthermore, Blake’s poems express his concerns about the way in which social institutions destroyed the capacity for imagination vision.
The publication of Jude the Obscure in 1896, caused public controversy for its dark and explicit content. His wife Emma was afraid that the novel would bear autobiographical attributes, which didn 't help their relationship, either. It should be noted that his female protagonist Sue, represents a strong, independent woman with a restrained sexuality, who doesn 't believe in the institution of marriage. Even though Hardy and Emma were married for thirty-eight years, they didn 't manage to have children. Although, Hardy claimed that the novel had little to do with his life.