This crusade was declared by Pope Eugenius III in 1147 after it became apparent the crusader states were still under threat of Muslim invasion. The Second crusade was led by King Conrad III of Germany and King Louis VII of France. (Source 5)The kings planned to march into Anatolia to push back the Turkish armies and provide reinforcements for the crusader states and once again solidifying the presences of Christianity in the Middle East however this would be difficult due to many knights having died during the first crusade. Both kings were eventually defeated by the Turks and called off the crusade in 1149 without making any significant achievements during their time crusading (Source 7). The second crusade was uneventful compared to other crusades and is considered a failure due to the lack of communication between King Conrad and King Louis, the defeat effected Europe in that it damaged their economy, many soldiers died on the journey and the crusade created internal turmoil.
Two years later, the British began their march to Lexington and Concord to arrest patriot leaders and seize their weapons. In Lexington, the British were met with colonial armed forces known as minutemen. Here, eight colonists died. In concord, the two groups met again, but the minutemen left victorious. This event caused the beginning of the Revolutionary
Following the Battle of Bosworth of 1485, it was indisputable that Henry needed to establish new means of controlling the size and power of the nobility to levels which posed no threat to the throne. The Wars of the Roses 1455-85 resulted in 30 years of instability for England and thus Henry’s accession to the throne saw him take control of a fragmented country in which the crown was weak yet the nobility strong. Henry initially diluted noble power through the Act of Attainder which seized the titles and possessions of nobles suspected of disloyalty whilst simultaneously ensuring obedience as members of the nobility stood to lose everything should they be attained. Moreover, Henry was prepared to reverse an attainder if it would secure future loyalty evident in the fact that of the 138 attainders passed, 46 were later reversed.
When Theodosius II, the emperor of Rome, begged for terms, Attila's tribute was tripled, but, in 447, he attacked the empire again and negotiated another, more expensive, treaty . Additionally, in 451 Attila attempted to conquer Roman Gaul (modern France), however he was defeated at the Battle of Catalanunian Plains. Although, by 452, he invaded Italy, devastating the Northern provinces . Additionally, the Huns played a large part in the eventual fall of Rome. It is known that Attila thrived on warfare and bloodshed, but these accounts of success show how he must have been more than a savage leader to control such a barbaric race.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1135) was King of England from 1100 to 1135. After his dad, William the Conqueror, kicked the bucket in 1087, Henry's more seasoned siblings Robert and William Rufus acquired Normandy and England, individually, while Henry was landless. He grabbed the English throne after William Rufus' demise in 1100, and Robert attacked England to claim it. A settlement between the two affirmed Henry as ruler, yet it was brief; Henry attacked Normandy and crushed Robert. Henry's control of Normandy was tested by William Clito, Robert's child, and a disobedience came
In exchange, Napoleon had promised to him that Spain would stay Roman Catholic and Independent under a ruler that Napoleon would select himself. Napoleon ultimately chose his brother Joseph. However, on May 2nd the people of Madrid had started to rebel against Bonaparte, and thus started the war for Spanish independence. The Madrid rebellions began the movement that would finally end all of Napoleon’s power. Though the Madrid revolt was ruthlessly stopped by the French, it had become a spark for rebellions all around Spain.
Rhetorical Analysis The speech that was delivered by William Wallace in the movie Braveheart, was meant to persuade the soldiers to fight for their freedom even though they were grossly out-numbered by the English. In the early 13th century the Scottish and the English were fighting in the First Wars of Independence. This was the result of the death of King Alexander III in 1286, when he left no heir to the throne. King Edward I of England was successful in conquering this land an was trying to rid Scotland of their clans. William Wallace was a land owner who married his childhood friend Murron in secret because the lords of the land had the right to have their way with the women on their wedding nights.
During the early 700’s, Charles Martel took over in Latin Christendom, his Frankish kingdom of Christians. Martel’s kingdom was under threat of a rapidly spreading religion, Islam. This led to many battles between Christians and Muslims, but the most significant one was the Battle of Tours, 723 AD. Martel lead his army against the Muslims to attempt to stop them from progressing further into Europe, and he does. Without Christianity, this event would have never happened.
“With the country on the edge of political outbreak he advocated for a governing body representing three social classes, suddenly violence broke out and he was in charge of protecting his royal family” (Biography.com 2). After this he fled the country, but was taken by Australian forces and didn 't return to France until 1799. Even when he was back in France he still felt like he should keep a low profile just to be sure he wouldn 't be caught. Finally in 1830 when King Charles the tenth was overthrown he could come out of hiding. As he came out of hiding he was offered the job to become dictator but turned the offer down.
Lous XIV was a foreordained regent for the throne, as the predecessor, after his father passed away. Though in succession, not long after his father died, the actual power was first handed to Cardinal Mazarin, Louis was 5 at the time. It wasn’t until 1661, after the death of Mazarin that Louis was finally seated on the throne and began his reign of ruling tyranny as a King. After Mazarin’s death, Louis took absolute power as the new king of France — though, by this time, France was not economically strong after the Thirty Year War. Although Louis was seated on the throne at the age of 5 in1643, he wasn’t fully taken to the position until he was 22 years old.
Jacob Leisler was born in Germany; he was married to Elsje Tymens in 1663. He was a wealthy merchant, militia officer. He then led a rebellion against the policies of James II and colonial aristocrats in the colony of New York. After James II had been removed, Governor Andros was taken as a prisoner to England leaving Governor Nicholson in charge. Leisler militia got rid of Governor Nicholson and appointed himself a new governor of New York and ruled from 1689-1691, refusing to transfer the command to a pointed royal commander.
William 's strength defeated Harold, who was killed in the battle. Within no time Harold faced two attacks, “one came from the king of Norway, Harald Hardrada, who was supported by Harold Godwinson 's brother Tostig, and the other from William, Duke of Normandy.” Harold debated the Norwegian attack at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in September 1066. On October 14, 1066 Harold was defeated and killed soon after at the Battle of Hastings. Due to Williams death plot of his lands were distributed between his eldest son, Robert who took control of Normandy, and his second son, William Rufus, becoming king of England. William Rufus succeeded in quelling the uprising and the treats of his elder brother and retained his title as
France colonized the middle of the United states from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains to New Orleans. This vast land colony was lost after the peace treaty following the Seven Years War. Forced to cede their American lands to the English and Spanish, France never forgot their prized possession. Choiseul’s plan to recover the lands started with the unrest in America before the American Revolution, “In 1766, Choiseul ordered Edmé Genet to send a naval officer-turned-spy— Sieur Pontleroy— to America to evaluate colonist dissatisfaction and determine whether French arms and money might help incite rebellion.”
Since 1804, Napoleon was trying to create his own empire over Europe. He was defeated in 1805 by the British, but he continued to move forward across Europe before being forced to surrender. He returned to Paris in March 1815, prompting Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria to declare war. Napoleon invaded Belgium in June, attempting to take over Brussels. He sent his men to engage Wellington, also sending a battalion against General Blucher 's Prussian army.
In 1460 through 1550 the “New Monarchs” in France, England, and Spain will create the groundwork of the modern nation-states development. This was stalled until the late 18 century and early 19 century because of the people 's lack of nationalism, since relations were closer near home. The partial reason for New Monarchs was because of the political structure failure in the 15 century that created money issues for sustaining knights, thus power rise for New Monarchs happened for the first time ever. Whereas, the new monarchs that began the initiation contained authority with the people’s interests and wills, while absolutism stayed at bay, and New Monarch’s secular law systems were being installed. The shape shifting characteristics of New Monarchs