Chemical oxygen demand (COD) This is a measurement of the oxygen needed to oxidize soluble and particulate organic matter in water. It similar to BOD, it supplies an index to evaluate the effect discharged wastewater will have on the receiving environment. It is usually expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over volume of solution which in SI units is milligrams per litre (mg/L) and accepted standard measurement by the International Organization for Standardization is ISO 6060. Also this test can be used to easily quantify the quantity of organics in water and most common implementation of COD is in quantifying the amount of oxidizable pollutants available in surface water such as lakes and rivers or wastewater and is useful for water quality
Some situations include things like porcelain, cup, and the majority materials. Air, nitrogen as well as sulfur hexafluoride would be the three most often utilized gaseous dielectrics. • Industrial coatings for instance parylene provide a dielectric hurdle between the substrate and its particular surroundings. • Mineral oil used substantially inside electrical transformers like a liquid dielectric and also to aid in cooling. Dielectric fluids with greater dielectric constants, for instance electrical grade castor oil, are often utilized in higher voltage capacitors to aid avoid corona eliminate and also boost capacitance.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a measure of the capacity of water to consume oxygen during the chemical decomposition of the organic matter and oxidation of inorganic chemicals such as ammonia and nitrite. Test Procedure The COD was determined by the dichromate reflux method. The appropriate amount of sample was introduced into commercially available digestion solution containing potassium dichromate, sulphuric acid and mercuric sulphate and the mixture was then incubated for 120 min at 150º C in a COD reactor (HACH, USA). COD concentration was measured colorimetrically using a spectrophotometer (DR 2010, HACH, USA). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is used as a measure of oxygen requirement of a sample that is susceptible to oxidation by strong
Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability to make substitutions to benzene is critical. This can be accomplished by the use of Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) as Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (NAS) is not possible because of the electron-rich benzene ring, which does not have substituents that withdraw electrons. Since the density in the
During this task, processes were analyzed in detail to determine the inputs and outputs to be included in the mass balances which would be the basis for CP opportunities evaluation. The evaluation guidelines are as follows: On-site inspection activities: Identify all wastewater discharges including leaks and spills. Monitor the process unit operations to identify unmeasured or undocumented releases of products and wastes. Make necessary measurements to identify flow rates of specific discharge sources. Make necessary experiments to characterize wastewater sources where there are obvious CP opportunities or high pollution loads to environment.
The aqueous solution-based ED method can be performed at a relatively low temperature and low cost. Moreover, thickness and morphology of deposited magnetite film can be easily controlled . Even though electrodiposition method is described as a very simple, cheap and non-vacuum based process, the physical properties of obtained coating layer is strongly influenced by the parameters of the electrolytic deposition [20,21]. There are two
The arce method is the method for making C60 fullerenes, this method is one of the most easiest and also most common method. The arce method creates carbon nanotubes through arc-vaporization of two carbon rods placed end to end, separated by approximately 1mm, in an enclosure that is usually filled with inert gas usually helium or argon at low pressure. Although this method is common and the eastist. The method is also great to get small and high-quality of carbon nanotubes. The arce method does have some drawbacks, The fact that it is hard to up scale the method and also the carbon nanotubes are grown in highly tangled forms.
Flocculation is the process in Master of Science in Petroleum Engineering____________________________________________________________________________ Gaukhar Nauasheva, s206158 CRUDE OIL EMULSION TREATMENT Page - 11 - which emulsion drops aggregate, without rupture of the stabilizing layer at the interface. Flocculation may also occur under conditions when the Van der Waals attractive energy exceeds the repulsive energy and can be weak or strong, depending on the strength of inter-drop forces. Creaming, sedimentation and flocculation are all reversible phenomena and the original state can often be regained by application of high shear. A much more severe phenomenon is coalescence, a process in which droplets merge into each other. Coalescence is an irreversible phenomenon .
1 Chromatographic decontamination 1) ion trade Decontamination of steed Ig by particle trade strategies has been portrayed. These creators took after the technique for Ter Avest et.al. (1992) with minor adjustments, utilizing DE-52 cellulose or DEAE CL-6b. 1gram DE-52 cellulose in 6ml 0.01m phosphate cradle (PB) ph6.0 was included every ml of serum. The DEAE CL-6b gel was washed twice with 0.5m Hcl, twice with 0.5m Naoh and twice with PB ph6.0 before utilization.
If you conduct the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a closed vessel, you will be able to determine the reaction rate as a function of the pressure increase in the vessel that is caused by the production of oxygen gas. If you vary the initial molar concentration of the H2O2 solution, the rate law for the reaction can also be determined. Finally, by conducting the reaction at different temperatures, the activation energy, Ea, can be calculated as heat is the energy source. Catalase is very efficient at decomposing hydrogen peroxide; one molecule of the enzyme can catalyse the conversion of over 6000,000 hydrogen peroxide molecules into water and oxygen every second. The enzyme occurs widely in tissues such as the liver and prevents accumulation of, and tissue damage by, hydrogen peroxide that is produced during metabolism.