It was found that the compound was solid and white in color. The unknown compound was then tested solubility in water and the compound was soluble in the water. The flame test was performed for four know compound calcium chorine, sodium chlorine and ammonium chorine and the unknown compound. When unknown compound was put on the fire different color are produce. When we smell the unknown compound it indicated the presence of chorine.
The active ingredients in the alka seltzer tablet are “As the tablets dissolve, the sodium bicarbonate splits apart to form sodium and bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions react with hydrogen ions from the citric acid to form carbon dioxide gas (and water). This is how the bubbles are made.”(Scientific American) These bubbles are representative of a chemical change and the resulting carbon dioxide should increase the water 's density. This may actually increase the volume of the water taking longer to boil, this difference may be minuscule, even negligible, but there 's a possibility for distinct change in results. This scientific American puts it best “For the reaction to occur,
A titration is the precise addition of a solution from a buret into an accurately measured volume of a sample solution. A titrant is the solution in the buret that is used for the titration, and the volume of the solution is known. The titrants used in this lab were 0.1M hydrochloric acid and 0.1M sodium hydroxide (the reactions can be seen in figure 4). A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a compound that donates a proton. A Bronsted-Lowry base is a compound that accepts a proton.
Cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3∙6H2O), zirconium (IV) oxynitrate hydrate (ZrO(NO3)2∙xH2O), 1-butanol, nitric acid (HNO3) and P123 surfactant (EO20-PPO70-PEO20) were the required chemicals. The required amounts of cerium oxide and zirconium oxide precursors (see Annex 7.2 for the calculation details) were dissolved in a solution containing respective amounts of 1-butanol, HNO3 and P123 surfactant. Then, the solution was placed in a water bath of 40 to 60 oC under magnetic stirring for further mixing. The obtained gel was placed in the oven at 120 oC for 5 h. After, the powder was washed several times with ethanol and was filtered in order to recover the solids. The solids were then dried overnight.
In this experiment, racemic 2-methylcyclohexanone was reduced using sodium borohydride as a nucleophile to give a diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans secondary alcohols. The products were analyzed for purity using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography. 1.2 g of 2-methylcyclohexanone and 10 mL of methanol were combined in a flask and cooled in an ice bath. Two 100 mg portions of sodium borohydride were added to the flask and stirred. 5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred.
First, the alkyl halide reacts with a strong Lewis Acid catalyst, usually aluminum chloride, to form a complex, which will then lose the halide to the Lewis acid to give the electrophilic acylium ion. The ion, stabilized by resonance, will react with the p-electrons from a double bond in benzene (acting as a nucleophile) and form the cyclohexadienyl cation intermediate and the tetrachloroaluminate anion. The anion then acts as a base to remove a proton from the ring and reform the initial Lewis acid. The ring regains its aromaticity and the product, an aromatic ring with an acyl substituent is fully synthesized.
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions that take place on benzene, and how the presence of substituents in the ring affect the orientation of the incoming electrophile. Using acetanilide, as the starting material, glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were mixed and stirred to produce p-nitroacetanilide. In a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3.305 g of acetanilide were allowed to mix with 5.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. This mixture was warmed in a hot plate with constantly stirring at a lukewarm temperature so as to avoid excess heating. If this happens, the mixture boils and it would be necessary to start the experiment all over again.
Montmorillonite K10 (Na+MMT) (Himadia), Ion exchange resin (CDH), sulfuric acid (1.84 g cm-3, 98 wt%; Merck), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol were used as recieved. SPEEK Synthesis SPEEK was prepared through the via of sulfonation reaction by using concentrated sulfuric acid at desired temperature. The dried PEEK pellets were ground well with the help of a martter for reducing dissolution time of the PEEK polymer. 5
This reaction uses the enzyme aconitase. This is a reversible reaction. Iso- citrate is formed through the intermediate formation of cis-aconitate. Aconitase is an iron sulphur enzyme. In step three iso-citrate is oxidised to α-ketoglutarate and also CO2 is released.