The Citric Acid Cycle/ Kerbs Cycle/ TCA The Citric acid cycle is important as anaerobic glycolysis can only harvest a fraction of the energy from glucose. In the citric acid cycle there is aerobic respiration of pyruvate from step ten in glycolysis to C02 and H2O. This oxidation of pyruvate can greater a higher yield of ATP. The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria where ten ATP is produced. The main purpose of the citric acid cycle is to harvest electrons from the citric acid cycle and produce reduced compounds, then these reduced compounds are transported to the electron transport system and be used in the manufacturing of ATP.
How fast can the Enzyme move through to produce? In the lab we are going to use Hydrogen peroxide and enzyme catalase and water, the catalase is used to break down the Hydrogen peroxide and the oxygen in the water. You will be able to see as the oxygen produce in the reaction chamber and travel through the hose and up the graduated cylinder. We are going to capture the oxygen gas that being produce in the reaction chamber and see how
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
This process of rising up, condensation, and revaporization eventually results in vapor comprising 100% of substance A. This process is then repeated at the boiling point of substance B. The efficiency of this process is reflected by the reflux ratio, which reveals how many condensate drops reenter the stillpot for every distillate drop
The reflux process lasted an hour after which the generated mixture was separated by a separatory funnel. The sulfuric acid functioned as the acid catalyst and worked to protonate the carbonyl carbon of the benzoic acid compound leading to a more reactive nucleophile. Protonation of the carbonyl carbon allows for the generation of a tetrahedral intermediate structure composed of both the benzoic acid and the methanol. The removal of water from the tetrahedral intermediate leads to tautomerized structure that becomes methyl benzoate when a loss of hydrogen is registered in the tautomerized oxygen.After the hour of refluxing was done, the resultant mixture was separated into an organic layer and an aqueous layer by means of a separatory funnel. The separation process was aided by a diethyl ether solvent the usage of which saw the aqueous layer to be the bottom layer of the refluxed
Then 35 ml of 1.00 M of Sodium hydroxide was measured and set aside. Using the calorimeter, the hydrochloric acid was stirred heartily and its temperature was recorded as the initial temperature. The temperature of the Sodium hydroxide was assumed to be similar because they were both in the same conditions (lab) for the exact amount of time. Next the Sodium Hydroxide solution was added to the hydrochloric acid solution in the cups and stirred until the temperature stabilized. This was recorded as the final
This indicates that aprotic acetonitrile with large dielectric constant promote the collisions and dispersion of oxygen source, the alcohol and the catalyst . Furthermore, acetonitrile can form a perhydroxyl anion (OOH-) and activate the hydrogen peroxide. Perhydroxyl anion can attacks the nitrile to produce a peroxy carboximidic acid intermediate, which can act as an oxygen transfer agent and improve the conversion
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
Conclusion It was clearly observed that the decrease in the concentration of hydrogen peroxide lead to increase in the reaction time and also decrease in the rate of the reaction. Also the decrease on the concentration decreases the rate of the reaction. The two graphs were straight line graphs with positive slopes. So effective collision for a chemical reaction depends directly on the concentration of the reagent, that is, the crowdedness of the reacting molecules which increases reaction time and vice versa. References
Catalytic layer of the composite membrane was prepared by using tungstosilicic acid hydrate. The HEC-tungstosilicic acid hydrate catalytic membranes were prepared by dissolving HEC 2.5 wt.% and different concentration of tungstosilicic acid hydrate, and then it was added to the solution and stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The catalytically active layer was cast on the separation layer. After casting of the