History Of Chemistry

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1.1 CHEMISTRY
Chemistry is the science of molecules and their transformations; it deals with their composition and properties of substances and various elementary forms of matter. Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes which occur in material substances. It is connected to other fields of study and it is precisely useful in all the other fields like Geologist’s used chemical techniques to analyze and identify rock samples on new mineral or oil deposits. Engineers identify materials for their uses and estimate the relationship between the structure and properties of substances. Physicist detects the new subatomic particles by expressing the different properties of substance. The whole environmental science depends on chemistry. Chemistry is used for illuminating the origin and impact of phenomenon such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion and global warming1.
The history of chemistry can be divided into four periods:
1. Alchemy
2. The birth of chemistry as science
3. The foundation of chemical discipline
4. Modern chemistry2
1.2. Modern chemistry
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During this period, great advances researches were made in the extraction of metals from ores and metallurgy. The Englishman Robert Boyle in 1661 published The Skeptical Chymist, which described the relationship between the pressure and the volume of air. More important, Boyle defined an element as a substance that cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by chemical means. This led to the detection of a large number of elements, many of which were metals. In the 18th century, the English clergyman Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) discovered oxygen gas and found that numerous carbon-containing materials burn dynamically in an oxygen atmosphere, a process called
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