Maize And Chickpea Case Study

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Sample preparation
Maize (PMH-1) and chickpea (GPF-2) were procured from Department of Plant Breeding, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Whole grains of maize and chickpea were ground to pass through 200 μ sieve using laboratory-scale super mill (type 3303, Perten Instruments AB, Sweden). Maize and chickpea flour mixture in the ratio of 80:20 was used as this combination gave the best sensory score (hedonic score 8.1) on the basis of preliminary trials. The flour was blended for 15 minutes to ensure uniform mixing.
Proximate analysis
Proximate analyses of raw materials i.e. moisture content, protein (using macro-Kjeldahl procedure), fat (using Soxtec 2045- Foss Instrument, Hoganas, Sweden), fiber (using Fibertec-Foss Instrument,
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The length of the barrel was 400 mm and diameter was 25 mm thus its length to diameter ratio (L/D) was 16:1. The barrel which contains the screws had four barrel zones of 100 mm for each. The temperature of the first, second and third zone during extrusion process were maintained at 40, 70 and 100oC respectively, while the temperature of the fourth zone was changed according to each run of RSM design. The die has four exit holes with 1.5 mm diameter of each. Extrusion machine was operated by 8.5 kilowatt motor with speed range from 0 to 682 rpm. Feeding rate of the raw material was controlled by single screw volumetric feeder (D.S. and M, Modena, Italy). Feed moisture was adjusted by injecting water into the extruder by water pump. Extrudates were cut by a multi speed cutter with four bladed knives attached with the…show more content…
Samples were allowed to stand for 1-2 h at room temperature before inserting in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A mass between 20 and 30 mg of the preconditioned samples was filled in a hermetic aluminum pan and introduced into the calorimeter. DSC (TGA/DSC1, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) equipped with thermal analysis software (STARe system, version 9.20) was used for estimation and for data analysis. To determine the DG, samples were heated from 20 oC to 100 oC at a heating rate of 10 oC/min. An empty sample pan was used as reference. DG was determined by comparing the enthalpy or heats of transition (ΔH) of extruded samples to raw flour mixture (free of gelatinised starch) using the following

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