For TLC profiling, 4 TLC plates were prepared for the testing of each solvent. As shown in Figure 1, the green food dye was placed at the bottom center, specifically 0.5 cm away from the bottom of the plate, with the use of a capillary tube. Each one of the silica plates were then vertically placed in a small beaker with its inside surrounded by a filter paper saturated with the solvent to be tested and a small amount of the same solvent at the bottom. The TLC plate was then taken out when the rising solvent was about to reach the top of plate. The ammonia: 1-butanol solvent was tested 7 times due to some personal
A laptop was then turned and connected to a spectrophotometer, via USB, to collect data. The Logger Pro program was opened on the laptop, and “Experiment” was selected. Once “Experiment” was selected, “Data Collection” was chosen, and the means by which the data would be collected was “Time Base.” The “duration” of time for this experiment was selected to be 30 minutes. The rate at which data was collected was ensured to be “1 samples/minute” and “1 minutes/sample.” The data was recorded at a “continuous” rate with “over collection.” Once the proper settings were chosen, “Done” was selected to prepare for recording data. From there, on the top-right corner of the screen, “Configure Spectrophotometer” was chosen, and a wavelength of light at which the data was collected was set at 440.6 nm.
At the summer season, the maize and cowpea seeds were sowed at the field and irrigated by the methods of surface, drip and sprinkler irrigation systems for each crop. Normal fertilizers were applied to soil as recommended. Soil and root samples were collected from the soil profile below one plant (corn and cowpea) at three irrigation systems by pressing sharp-edged iron box (30cm× 20cm) horizontally in soil profile to deep 40cm. The following achievements were obtained: A- First Experiment 1- Soil
Microcalorimetry experiment was performed on Setaram−C80 heat flow calorimeter coupled to a multiport high-vacuum homemade glass manifold. A specific amount of the sample (approx. 500 mg) was taken into a sample cell, reference cell was taken as empty and together they are connected with Pyrex tee. The sample was heated from room temperature to 200°C under vacuum and kept for 2 h, then 3-4 doses of helium gas were introduced into the system to remove any excess residue such as moisture or organic impurity from the system. The system was heated for 4-5 hr under vacuum at 200°C and then cooled down to the temperature (50°C) where we want to perform the adsorption study.
The test jar was places in the ice box containing freezing mixture. In the determination of the cloud point the sample was cooled and inspected at intervals of 2°C until a cloud and haze appeared, than noted the thermometer reading. This was the cloud point. As soon as cloud point was determined the test jar was further cooled and inspected at intervals of 5F. Until it ceases to flow when test jar was tilled & kept horizontal for 5 seconds.
All standards, samples and solvents were filtered using filtered using 0.45 µm Sartorius Stedim, cellulose nitrate filter paper prior to HPLC-PAD analysis. The HPLC-PAD system consisted of a PAD detector, Perkin Elmer pump and ALS, CarbopakPA1 (4 × 250 mm) and CarbopakPA1 Guard Column (21.7 °C). The PAD detection range was set at 300 K (E1: 0.05 V, E2: 0.76 V, E3: -0.20 V). The injection volume used for analysis was 50 µL and the analysis time for each sample and standard was set at 30 minutes. The solvent system used for analysis was 10 mM NaOAc/ 150 mM NaOH and the kestoses were eluted at a flow rate of 1 mL /min.
Title : Determination of chemical formula of hydrate Aim To determine the chemical formula of hydrated Copper (II) sulphate, CuSO4 Research Background “When the chemical is heated the hydrate will convert to an anhydrous ionic compound (this means the water will leave it). The moles of H2O will be determined by assuming the amount of mass lost by heating is the mass of the evaporated H2O. The moles of the CuSO4 (the white substance after heating) can be calculated from the mass of the white crystals. Using the molar ratio of moles of CuSO4 to moles of H2O, one can determine the chemical formula of the hydrate.” Apparatus and materials Apparatus and Materials used Quantity Crucible and lid Tripod stand Clay triangle Wire gauze White tile
The obtained DSC characteristic curves of the investigated samples are presented in Fig. 3a. The values of the glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset temperature of crystallization (Tc) and the peak temperature of crystallization (Tp) are determined and listed in Table 2. Very weak (Tg) endothermic changes are observed for all the samples except for the sample (Se60Te40)75Tl25. On the other hand, a sharp exothermic (Tc) peaks are easily observed for all the samples except for the sample (Se60Te40)60Tl40 in which a weak (Tc) peak is observed.
2. Materials and methods 2.1. Rhizosphere soil sampling and isolation of PGPR Rhizosphere soil of chickpea plants growing in the agricultural field near the university (26o42’ 30.88” N and 88o20’ 52.97” E) was collected during the month of December. 1g soil was suspended in 10 ml of standard 0.85 % saline and vortexed for 10 min to get a uniform suspension. Serial dilutions were made by sequentially adding 1 ml from 10-1 till 10-7.
Equal bite size from the four treatments was coded and served. Each sample was evaluated independently of the other. Proximate analysis The proximate analysis of the raw meat samples were carried out in accordance with the method described by AOAC (1998). Three samples per treatment were used and proximate analysis was carried out on each sample in triplicate. Experimental Design Complete randomized design was employed.