This means that, childhood is a universal aspect of all societies, as the consistency of having common space within the social structure is seen in any community. Nevertheless, whilst the social space does persist, the historical nature will change and constructed by the changes in legislations, policies and social experiences (James & James, 2012). This in turn, relates back to the fact that childhood is not universal for the differences in social, cultural and historical position. Moreover, James and Prout (2015) states that it is no wonder that childhood in the Western countries is influenced by the fall of the industrialized economic measures as the
I would have always considered childhood throughout the centuries to be similar: a period of innocence, play and freedom. I imagined that children were treated like children and were protected. However, this was not always the case. Within a social constructionist framework, there is not a single absolute conception of childhood, but a multiple, relative and changeable one that varies between cultures and societies (The disablement and enablement of childhood Chi-Ming Lam a a Department of International Education and Lifelong Learning, Hong Kong Institute of Education, New Territories, Hong Kong). If we look into the past historical views of childhood on a basis of the work from Philippe Ariès (1962) in “Centuries of Childhood”, childhood as a distinct social category was absent.
1.4. Analyse how children’s learning and development can be affected by: Personal factors are a child’s genes which influence development and how the brain works. This influences a child’s personality, potential and health which will later be influenced by their environment • Influences before and at birth: genetics, maternal, diet etc. during pregnancy and birth itself can have problems due to the lack of oxygen (cord around the neck) and injuries during birth. • Encouragement: if children are not given the praise and encouragement they need, this will affect their relationships and friendships as they get older and they will have poor attachment this can develop into anxiety, depression and they will lack motivation.
Childhood is not at all the same thing in different times and places. That childhood differs in important ways according to where in the world we are what period of history we are in, or which social group we are considering, is not in dispute. What is sometimes disputed, however, is whether we can use the words ‘childhood’ and ‘children’ to apply to what we find in different times and places or among different social groups. Unsurprisingly, some authors prefer to speak of a multiplicity of ‘childhoods’ rather than a single ‘childhood’. It is now generally accepted that childhood is, in a significant sense, socially constructed– that is, it is something produced in social interaction and discourse rather than being a purely natural phenomenon.
Having the right knowledge, skills and experience in understanding how children or young people develop are very important tools for early years practitioners. We must put to mind that each child born into this world is unique. Children are born with different characters, their personalities and behaviours are formed and influenced by a variety of factors. These factors may affect their ways of interacting with the environment and community or setting in which they live in. Most of the time, adults mainly focus on the physical development of a child and so quick to base their conclusions or judgement on the physical skills.
Social influences are expectations delivered via intense media, adult and peers are very important to a young person at this time. The family (parenting style), schools, religion and community all can influences the social influences on a young person development, Martha is all about her peers at this stages she goes out and socialize with them and only really care about what they are doing. Her mum was a young mother herself so her parenting style could be different to Martha compared to the other two brothers because her mother has got older. Martha listens to a lot of music so this could be influencing her social life and who she hangs around with. Cultural influences for young people depend on what culture they are from because all culture are different, this is essential on their development.
The term childhood is a term with a variety of aspects and facets and carries no one definition. Childhood has been viewed different globally over different periods of time. It is very subjective and variations in biological make up, economic status and the environment lead to individual differences in children’s paths of life and resulting competencies. Nature and nurture both contribute towards shaping the childhood experiences which are increasingly diversified .Thoughts, feelings and behaviour as a whole is affected by the wide variety of influences in biology, social and cultural context. ( Stearns 2006).
This period is an continue process in education which is focus on physical and cognitive development The child development is an continuous process where the child develop an appropriate behaviour which define de child in the relation whit himself or with adults. There are two very important factors which can influence the child development. If a child is experiencing emotional stress states and he cannot cope with, this can affect his ability to develop physically and learn. We like adults have to provide all the opportunities to learn , ensuring protection and above all love. Early education is considering the fundamental period for brain development.
Support your view with concrete and specific example. Introduction According to Oxford University Press (2015), “Children” refers to the young human being who are below the age of adolescence or below the legal age of majority in law. Children’s behavior and thought are easily influenced by the environment that they had exposed such as community, home, school, peers, and media. In general, environment are not only the only factors that influenced children, but it is also depending on the age of the children. The stages in children’s development from dependency to independence are influences directly from the ways of the children learning from the environment.
This is a big problem in our multicultural society. Moreover, stereotypes can create problems in children. These problems can affect in many ways. We can see the negative effects in several areas such as academic area. Stereotypes also create confusion in children because they are growing up with the idea that they should be a way because the company think it's ideal.