Children who are born first in the family are 6.14% less likely to suffer from neglect than children who are not the first-born. There was also a significant difference found among one-child families (47.87%) and multi-child families (58.20%). Parents who have more children have a difficult time giving equal attention to all children in the family. The study suggests children living in rural areas where minority and multi-child families belong are at a higher risk of neglect than children who live in urban China with families who spend more time together as a whole. To help explain why these children are neglected, the causes of neglect must be addressed.
In regards to families in the lower social economic class, Shanahan, Runyan, Martin, and Kotch (2017) discuss the public health problems that occurs from child maltreatment in families who are in poverty. Each year, maltreatment effect 17.1 out of 1000 children in America. Children who live with four or more siblings are three times more likely to suffer from neglect. Also, Families who are experiencing poverty are cited as a risk factor for child neglect. Shanahan et al.
In this article, “Childhood and Intergenerational Poverty: The Long-Term Consequences of Growing up Poor” written by Robert Wagmiller and Robert Adelman, states children from low income family faces more challenges and children living in poverty has an increases chance of being poor in adulthood. In the beginning of the article, they gave us an overview of evidence-based research of intergenerational poverty by studying both parent’s and children’s. The researches are inconclusive and differentiate by time frame. Using the PSID, Isaacs’ concluded that children income is greater than their parents. Isaacs explained that children who are poor will spend their childhood in poverty.
Many children in low income homes, tend to score lower on test scores, and have higher drop out rates this may be due to lack of preparation, not having access to early childhood education programs, which means entering kindergarten, they are lacking the basic skills such as lack of vocabulary. Studies have shown, low income children enter school having heard 30 million fewer words than children from middle class families. These children also face poor nutrtion making it harder to concentrate and higher mobility, moving from school to school. Dysfunctional families also plays a role in a childs development, children coming home to stressful households can put a strain on them. (Jeanette DeForge January 08, 2015 http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2015/01/war_on_poverty_8_challenges_po.html)
There are many reasons that cause child labor: Poverty and unemployment levels are high – As you see, the most of employed children work in less developed countries by economy. In such countries poor families and children may rely upon child labor in order to improve their chances of attaining basic necessities. According to U.N statistics more than one-fourth of the people around the world live in poverty that is caused by the high unemployment levels. Free education is limited – U.N estimated that approximately 75 million children were not attending school. The education for the whole world’s children costs 10-30 Billion dollars that is 0.7% - 2% of the annual cost of global military spending.
According to the PBS Frontline video “Poor Kids” 2012, more than 46 million Americans are living beneath the poverty line. The United States alone has one of the highest rates of child poverty in the industrialized world. It is stated that 1 out of 5 children are living in poverty. The video documented the lives of three families who are faced with extreme hardships and are battling to survive a life of being poor. All three families have more than one child and could barely afford to pay their bills and purchase food for their household.
Countries have attempted to end poverty for many years now but it seems that the numbers continue to increase. Some people blame the government while others blame the individual for their own situation. The article also addresses public attitudes towards welfare recipients which tends to be negative. Many think that the welfare system is only hurting the American economy. Therefore, many African American women are oppressed for receiving food stamps, but when compared to a disabled person the treatment is
“More than 20 percent of the children live in households without consistent access to food” (“15 Percent of All Children in Illinois”). This is a massive number and shows how much poverty there is in the U.S. When they suffer like this then the results don’t turn out as well. These children don’t know when their next meal would come and
Today, about 30 percent families in the U.S. are families with color. The black population is about 14 percent of the U.S population. Nearly 1 in 3 black children live in families with low income under the poverty level, when non-Hispanic has the lowest child poverty rate which is 10 percent. Some parents of color have face income inequality due to racial inequality. They earn less money doing the same jobs than the others.
According to Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (2011), annually, teen pregnancy cost taxpayers about $6 billion in lost tax proceed and almost $3 billion in community expense. It noted that in spite of declines in teen pregnancy in the United States since 1991, substantial racial and ethnic inequalities still occur. Viner et al. , (2012) identified social determinants of health in a population as those factors or conditions of people’s birth, place of residence, and source of livelihood. Their work recognized four social determinants of health which may impact teen pregnancy as 1) income 2) education 3) social support network and 4) living environment.
We now know that there are long-term effects on children whose families face economic depression. If the know this information and study these effects we can help combat the effects of poverty on children. Whether that be in a school or church setting there are things that adults can do to help fight the effects. The book Children of the Great Depression: Social Change in Life Experience was found through the article used it the Rhetorical Analysis paper which was a review of the book.
Many times this pattern begins at an early age as a juvenile and progress up through adulthood, leading to the so call school to prison pipeline. A 2007 study by two civil rights organizations further demonstrated the government’s emphasis on incarceration over education. Researchers found “the U.S. spent almost $70 billion annually on incarceration, probation and parole.” This figure represented a 127% increase from 1987 to 2007, dramatically outpacing the funding for higher education during the same time period (Porter, 2015). In addition, Mothers who give birth to children in poor conditions have really set the child up to be disadvantaged from the very beginning.
Studies also show that children who have gone through divorce are more likely to get lower grades and are considered less pleasant to be around by their peers and teens who live in a single parent or blended home are three times more likely to need psychological help within a year. These choices are already made for the children and they have