When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned. Behaviorist psychology had a significant effect on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method. In Audiolingualism, the underlying theory of learning is behaviorist. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement are the main components of Behaviorism. When we adjust it to language learning; the stimulus is the information about foreign language, the response is student’s reaction on the presented material, and the reinforcement is natural “self-satisfaction of target language use (Richards & Rodgers, 1987).
He described four stages, Sensorimotor Stage, Pre-operational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage and Formal Operational Stage, beginning in infancy and ending in adulthood. According to Piaget, we use the cognitive abilities we have at each stage to construct meaning drawn from our own environment (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012). He believed that there are two ways to approach constructivist theory: the developmental and the environment. The developmental theory of cognition describes the structures of knowledge as pre-logical, concrete and abstract operations (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012). According to Piaget, children learn concepts through different stages of cognitive development, this occurs before learning occurs and concepts are internalised (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012).
Patricia later explains that the box did this when an infant would respond to changes in the phonemes “ah” and “e”. Unfortunately, infants are praised and or rewarded for errors as well because parents and caregivers are unaware that the child may use the same word to refer to multiple
Education is centered on themes and concepts and the connections between them, rather than isolated information. Constructivism is first of all a theory of learning based on the idea that knowledge is constructed by the knower based on mental activity. Learners are considered to be active organisms seeking meaning. Constructivism is founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world consciously we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences.
How people process and store data is essential during the time spent learning. Blueprint - An inner learning structure. New data is contrasted with existing psychological structures. Construction might be consolidated, stretched out or adjusted to suit new data. The information frameworks of psychological structures are effectively developed by learners in view of previous subjective structures on account of learning dynamic digestion and convenience of new data to existing intellectual structures however in the event of inspiring learners to set their own particular objectives and propel themselves to learn.
After that combine the sounds and pronounce the word. Later he/she will think the meaning of the word. Top down Opposite to the bottom up process, top down process will decode meaning by, drawing on the listener 's own prior knowledge and expectations. This emphasizes on when we use knowledge of grammatical, syntactic and lexical rules to make meaning of what we want say. So we know Language processing involves the reconstruction of meaning through prior knowledge.
Burnett 2010 states that the preschool education is now transforming their lessons into the digital world and the children’s exposure to technology at home allows them to gain more experience before entering preschool. Like how children will get excited and driven as they are using a recognizable game from their habitus (Miller et al. 2012). Bearing in mind that parents and teachers control over children’s usage of computers or access to technology is important so that they do not fall into getting wrong answers and ideas about learning (Plowman & Stephen
Students should to pay attention to whose language is worth knowing, since every discipline is taught through language discourse. Secondly, we need to reframe the concept of language by admitting that language should be diverse and dynamic instead that it is static and disciplined, and by admitting that all the languages have the same status instead that some languages are more logical, academic, and scientific. Then we may ask how macro Ideology can be applied into the curriculum study through micro language ideologies. That model is conization, fractal recursivity, and erasure (Irvine & Gal, 2000) for the understanding of how micro-discourse processes display
John, 1998). Nevertheless, knowing learners’ needs is not a simple task due to the multi-interpretations of the needs. (As discussed in section 2.2.2) Competency-based learning by comparison focuses on the outcomes or outputs of learning in the development of language program. It addresses what the learners are expected to do with the language; however they learned to do it. “The focus on outputs rather than on inputs to learning is central to the competencies perspective.” (Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 141).
How Child Learn Language through Child Directed Speech (CDS) Acquiring the language requires fundamental elements in order to use language for communication in at least daily life effectively. In other words, vocabulary is the prerequisite component before using language in more complicated level. Krashen (1989) stated that comprehensible input can facilitate learners acquire L2. Since comprehensible input is important to learn language initially, baby learning the first language is assumed that they needs input from parents or from caregiver in order to be familiar with the L1 and can gradually use the language later. Investigating how parents or caregiver provide input in form of utterances is worth to study because it can explain the interesting phenomenon defined as child learning language.