7) Empirical Formula Figure 17: Chemical Structure of Mannitol 8) Applications in Pharmaceutical Formulation or Technology Mannitol is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and food products. In pharmaceutical preparations it is primarily used as a diluent (10–90% w/w) in tablet formulations, where it is of particular value since it is not hygroscopic and may thus be used with moisture-sensitive active ingredients. Mannitol may be used in direct-compression tablet applications, for which the granular and spray-dried forms are available, or in wet granulations. Granulations containing mannitol have the advantage of being dried easily. Specific tablet applications include antacid preparations, glyceryl trinitrate tablets, and vitamin preparations.
It helps to prevent strokes, heart attacks and blood clot formation. It can be produced from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride, with acetic acid as its by-product. However, salicylic acid consists of the phenolic and carboxylic acid groups which are way too acidic for the stomach lining. Thus, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) was refined to become a more effective substitute. Theories In this experiment set-up, acetic anhydride is added to salicylic acid in the presence of a catalyst, concentrated sulphuric acid.
Liquid glucose act as a sweetening agent whereas titanium dioxide act as opacifier. Artificial cherry flavor is a flavoring agent which contains benzyl alcohol and propylene glycol, which also act as antimicrobial preservative. Purified water is the solvent used in
Finally, the seeds can be boiled in barley water which can then be drunk by nursing mothers to help stimulate their flow of milk. Furthermore, Fennel essential oil mixed with sugar is an excellent remedy for flatulence. Fennel oil can also be added to gargles to help relieve coughing and hoarseness. Externally, fennel oil can be rubbed on sore joints to relieve rheumatic pains. Cautions: Extremely high dosages of fennel can overexcite the nervous system.
It can be used as medicine to reduce symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia. 3. Help in digestion In India, Fennel seeds are taken after a meal to improve digestion and as a mouth freshener. The essential oils in fennel stimulate secretion of digestive juices. It facilitates proper absorption of nutrients.
Others It provides 20 of the 22 the needed amino acids in the human body and 7 of the 8 essential amino acids . It also contains salicylic acid that possesses botj anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Lignin, an inert substance, when included in ointment preparations, increase penetrative effect of other ingredients into the skin. It also contains Saponins ,which are the soapy substances, they constitute about 3% of the gel; they posses cleansing and antiseptic
As shown in the Table 1, the phytochemical that are present in Long pepper (Piper longum) dried fruit extract in trace amounts are Sterols, Flavonoids, Glycosides. In Long pepper (Piper longum) dried fruit extract the phytochemicals that are present in moderate amounts are, Saponins, Alkaloids, Triterpenes and Tannins. Problem 2. What is the antioxidant property of Long pepper (Piper longum) dried fruit extract in terms of the DPPH scavenging activity, making use of different concentrations in mg/kg of the plant extract? Table 2 Result of Analysis on the Antioxidant Activity of Long pepper (Piper longum) Dried Fruit using the DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity Method.
Xanthan gum is used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in variety of foods, personal care products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medicine and some other industrial applications. Xanthan gum has some remarkable properties like: * Ability to produce a large increase in the viscosity of a liquid by adding a very small quantity of gum (usually 0.5%), and can be used in lower concentrations. * Xanthan
Anal. 13, 105–113 (2002) (3) http://chromblog.thermoscientific.com/blog/bid/84054/Accelerated-Solvent-Extraction-Bioanalytical-Samples 27 Csiktusna di Kiss GA , Forgacs E , Cserhati T ,Mota T, Moras H , Ramos A. Optimisation of microwave assisted extraction of pigments from paprika (Capsicum Annum L. ) powders J.Chromatogr. A 2000 ; 889 ;41-49 28 Pan X, Liu H ,Jia G , Shu yy . microwave assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from Licorice root .Biochem. Eng.J 2000 ; 5 ; 173-177 30 Brachet A, Christen P, Veuthy JL.
REDUCTION OF MORPHINE IN POPPY SEEDS THROUGH FOOD PROCESSING FOR ENHANCING NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF FOOD PRODUCTS Ankita Sharma1, Parul Sharma2 and Nimali Singh3 1. Research Scholar, Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan; 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Banasthali University; 3. Associate Professor, Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the opium plant (Papaver somniferum). It is one of the oldest known painkillers consisting of many alkaloids (morphine, codeine etc.)