Tsunamis happen when the plates on the crust of the earth move, therefore moving the entire plate so that the water rises and is pushed forward, therefore causing a tsunami (Drohan, 2009, p.21). These tectonic plates are everywhere, under everything from the biggest mountain to the smallest hill. Though it is infrequent, volcanoes have been known to cause tsunamis. It happens when to volcano begins to erupt, but instead of coming out from the top of the volcano a lateral blast shoots out from the side. Next, a quickly moving avalanche of lava pours into the water near it causing the wave to travel to distant coastlines (Springer, 2005).
Altogether, temperature, density, and convection currents work together to cause an earthquake. The layer of the Earth are made up of the lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, and the core. In the lithosphere, there is the upper rigid mantle, oceanic crust, and continental crust. The oceanic crust and continental crust is what makes up the lithosphere. Inside these layers, temperature and density all play a role in the layers of the Earth.
Although the city faces regular avalanches and the possibility of landslides the town’s major hazard is earthquakes. Earthquakes are the biggest threat to Juneau. The city has a history of very violent earthquakes. The earthquakes in Juneau are caused by crustal stress accumulated by the North American and Pacific plates. The city also experiences activity from the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system.
Plate tectonics is a theory that Earth’s crust is composed of nearly a dozen plates, which have shifted around the surface of the Earth over time. This theory provides a reasonable explanation for how mountains formed, and why there are earthquakes and volcanoes. Additionally, this
The original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical changes. Examples of these rock types include marble, slate, gneiss, schist.Metamorphic rocks can be formed from any other type of rock - sedimentary or igneous. Remember these two examples of common metamorphic rocks and where they come from: slate is formed from shale.main ways. Clastic material (pieces of other rocks or fragments of skeletons) may become cemented together and chemical precipitation and evaporation can form sedimentary
00Earthquakes occur almost daily due to the fact that Costa Rica lies between two tectonic plates: the Carribean plate and the Coicos plate. These two plates push and shove each other causing small tremors throughout which can cause landslides,volcanic eruptions and once in a couple years, quakes with devastating results. The strongest earthquake recorded occurred in 1991 with a measure of 7.6 on the Richter scale. This earthquake left 4 dead and buildings as well as bridges and road were completely destroyed. If another Earthquake occurs, the coastal cities would be the most affected ones as they are closer to the plates.
In San Francisco on April 18, 1906 at about 5:13 am a HUGE earthquake hit recorded as a 7.7-7.9 . Damaging buildings from left to right. Many poorly structured buildings collapsed causing 500 million dollars in total damage (1906 money) translated to about 8.2 billion dollars today. It was recorded that most buildings immediately caught fire which trapped the victims, about 25,000 buildings were burnt down from the fire, a total of about 490 blocks.At around 8:14 a Major aftershock hit making even more damaged building collapse. The earthquake and fires in San Francisco were recorded to be the worst natural disaster in U.S. history.
1815 Explosion In 1815, Mount Tambora famously erupted, with the explosion being a 7 on the volcanic explosivity index, which easily made it the highest rated eruption since Lake Taupo in 1815. It is estimated that the eruption produced 160 cubic kilometres of magma. It is also estimated that at least 11 000 – 12 000 people died as a result of the actual eruption, while the total death toll is around 71 000, most of whom died from the consequences of the eruption. The magnitude of the 1815 eruption caused the worst famine in the 19th century due to the death of most agriculture and livestock in the northern hemisphere. Subduction Zone The reason for the explosive events of Mount Tambora all comes down to the concept of plate tectonics.
Seismic waves are made when some kind of energy stored in Earth’s crust. Natural events such as volcanic eruptions and meteor impacts can cause earthquakes, but most of the naturally-occurring earthquakes are activated by movement of the earth 's plate. The Haiti Earthquake included many details common to Earthquakes and caused damage and destruction to property and lives that affected the region, but the area has recovered in its after math. Many parts of this disaster are common to Earth Quakes like the Haiti Earth Quake .Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince was a part and was also hurt. The disaster was a Earthquake it
Subduction is the process when in which one tectonic plate moves under the other, sinking into the mantle as the plates converge. Regions where subduction takes place are known as subduction zones. Subduction zones tend to have very high rates of earthquakes, volcanism, and mountain building. Some examples of volcanoes that are located above subduction zones would be Mount St. Helens, Mount Etna, and Mount Fuji. Furthermore, the strains, which are a result of plate convergence, are known to be the cause of at least three different types of earthquakes.
It involves high-pressure injections of water and chemicals into rock formations, which in turn release natural gas (Thompson, “Hydraulic Fracturing Should Be Banned”). However, fracking can result in many negative outcomes. For instance, scientists who conducted the earthquake study for Geology discovered that not only did fracking cause the biggest earthquake in Oklahoma, but it also caused more earthquakes in states that hardly experienced any seismic activity (“Wastewater Injection Spurred Biggest Earthquake Yet, Says Study,” The Earth Institute Columbia University). In fact, quakes have hit so frequently in Oklahoma, that state and oil regulators decided to shut down five disposal wells due to the increasing number of earthquakes in a city named Cushing (“Oil Regulators Shut Down Two Disposal Wells After Earthquakes Near Cushing”, State Impact: NPR). If fracking is capable of causing temblors as powerful as a 5.7-magnitude, it may be capable of inducing other massive earthquakes in the future.
A tsunami is a series of great sea waves caused by an underwater earthquake, landslide or volcanic eruption. A tsunami is a series of many waves known as wave trains. A tsunami can also be generated by a giant meteor. Most tsunamis are known to be formed by underwater earthquakes. How do earthquakes form?