Chimera Research Paper

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A chimera is a single organism made up of genetically different cells. These can be male and female organs, two different blood types and many more. There are two types of chimeras :-
1. Animal chimera
2. Plant chimera
Animal chimeras are formed by combining two or more fertilized eggs, whereas, in plant chimeras, the different types of tissues are formed from the same zygote, and the difference is because of mutation during cell division. Generally, chimerism is not seen in spontaneous examination. Animal chimera can also be formed by organ transplantation, giving one individual tissues that is obtained from two distinct genotypes. For example, a bone marrow transplantation can change the blood groups of a person.
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Chimeras are formed from at least four parental cells ,two fertilized eggs or early embryo fused together. There are some information of human chimerism also. This condition can be natural or can happen by the mixture of allogeneic hematopoietic cells during transplantation. The chances of having a chimera offspring increases if it is formed from in-vitro fertilization.
• Tetragametic chimerism
It is a form of genetic chimerism. It occurs by the fertilization of two ova and two sperms, along with the fusion of these two ova and spem zygotic stage.
• Parasitic chimerism
It takes place naturally in adult Ceratioid anglerfish and is an essential part of their life cycle. As the male reaches its middle age, he begins his search for a female. Male anglerfish uses his olfactory receptors, to locate a female anglerfish. When they fused, the males will reach sexual maturity, by evolving large testicles as their other organs.
• Germline chimerism
It occurs when germ cells are not genetically similar. Recently, it has been reported that marmosets (i.e., the new world monkey) are carrying the reproductive cells of their fraternal twin siblings. This is because of the placental fusion had taken place.

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