Cognitive learning strategies involve the mental or physical manipulation of the material to be learned. The strategies are resourcing, grouping, note taking, and elaboration. Teachers model, rehears, and support students the use of learning strategies in the classroom. Social/affective learning strategies interconnect the cognitive and the sociocultural dimensions of the biography. This kind of strategies considers two levels: the individual level and the interactive level.
2.1.1 Behaviourist or Structural CALL Behaviourist views of language learning and of language teaching were predominant in the two decades following the Second World War. The learning theory was very influential in the 1940s and 1950s. These views drew on general theories of learning propounded by psychologists such as Watson (1924), Thorndike (1932), Skinner (1957) and Dakin (1973). With regard to language learning, the best known proponent of this psychological theory was B.F. Skinner. Dakin identifies three general principles of language learning derived from these theories: a. the law of exercise i.e.
This essay will discuss the different perspectives and emphasis each learning theory, behavioural, cognitive and sociocultural, place on the individual, their environment and their behaviour; as well as which would be best suited to use for phonics lessons in the early childhood education classroom. The three learning theories, behavioural, cognitive and sociocultural all place a different emphasis on the relationship between learning and the individual. As O’Donnell et al., (2016) defines, learning is “a relatively permanent change in behaviour or knowledge that occurs as a result of experience” (p.235, 2016). Behavioural learning theorists place little emphasis on the individual and their role in learning, claiming that learning is a reaction
It focuses on how learners process inputs and outputs (Robert Gagne) it is the internal mental organization of knowledge, where knowledge is stored in a person’s schemata. In cognitivism theory a better and faster learning can be achieved by constructing a learning environment that rein-forces different learning styles. It can be best taught through lectures, visual tools such as mind maps and charts to facilitate memorization for learning .cognitive focuses on higher mental thinking activities such a problem solving and decision making.it requires a person to use their minds and think outside the box, think of solutions .for example learners need to be actively involved in their learning and that is based on their prior knowledge and past experience. For example you need to visualize a picture of a person so that when you ask a “who” question you know that you’re talking about a person or living thing and that visual is going to remain in their minds making it easy for them to remember that “who” stands for a living thing or person. Cognitive stresses the acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structures.
This helps the kids understand the severity of the situation a lot better since they had already learned about the KKK. The theory relates to PST numbers 1a, 1b, and 1c. These professional standards all have to do with knowing the material well and making the appropriate connections to other things. The second principle in the cognitive learning theory is “effective instruction encourages learners to coordinate their various mental processes” (Fetsco and McClure, CLT #2). An example of this theory being used in Codell’s classroom is when they celebrate “Cajun Christmas”.
Application of Cognitive and Motivational Learning Theories and Teaching Strategies. According to Pagliaro (2014) cognitive theories goes beyond observable behavior, by explaining that learning occur as a result of internal mental processes. Therefore, students mental processes are actively involved in the way they process information. In fact, knowledge, memory, thinking, and problem solving are areas associated with development. Piaget (1954) explained that knowledge is viewed as symbolic mental constructs, or schemata.
In this sense, the learner opts for and transforms information, assembles hypotheses, and formulates decisions relying on a cognitive structure. Cognitive configuration provides meaning and organization to experiences and consents to the individual to go beyond the given information (Culatta, 2015). In this case, students ascertain, and assess what they know. They are active creators of their own knowledge. Many researches proved the effectiveness of this theory, and one of these studies is that of Tyagi (2013).
Research Interests The principal focus of my research interests is Cognitive Linguistics, the empirical study of the mind, the relationship between language and cognition as well as the merger of language, culture and the human mind in a broader perspective from the analysis of immediate motivation up to the reproduction of subjective experience. The objective of my research study is to identify the key criteria that affect the cognitive interpretation and to do research on the degree of original thinking within cultural analysis. I will apply the interrelations between language and cognition as key players in transforming the theoretical approach into practical accomplishment and their prominence of any information-processing activities
Kilpatrick (1987) stated that acquisition of knowledge takes place when the learner incorporates new experiences into existing mental structures and reorganizes those structures to handle more problematic experiences. Similarly, Sweller (1988) indicated that a learner is involved in construction and reconstruction of knowledge, he or she forms integrated networks of ideas known as “cognitive schemas”. Furthermore, Sweller (1988) defines schemas as “structures which allow problem solvers to recognize a problem state as belonging to a particular category of problem states that normally require particular moves”. Marshall (1990) agreed with this definition when he defines a schema as the knowledge represented in our minds through networks of connected concepts, information, rules and problem solving strategies. Cognitive schemas are both the product of constructing knowledge and the tools with which new knowledge is constructed (Van de Walle,1998) and as learning occurs, the networks are rearranged, added to or otherwise modified (Van de Wale et al,