There would be arguments stating that morality would depend on the culture and context you are living in. Going back to the various perspectives on morality, constructed morality can be used as an argument to back this up. Discussions about this aspect of morality are launched based from Marx’s famous line “Man makes religion, religion does not make man”. With this, we depart from the religious aspect of morality and focusing on how it is a social construct. “The social constructionist argument posits reciprocity between human agency and the social system” (Matthews et al., 2004).
He states that we should strive self-alteration since it is our human nature to not stagnate but to progress. Otherwise we would betray the dynamic intrinsic of life and our own human nature. Other transhumanists use similar arguments to deduce that there is a value in progressing and enhancing that we are not supposed to question. Bioconservatives, on the other hand, have a different definition of human nature. According to Francis Fukuyama, a well-known bioconservative, human nature can be defined by "the sum of the behavior and characteristics that are typical of the human species, arising from genetic rather than environmental factors."
This is how we interact with the world by being in and partaking in it. We can only claim knowledge when we are able to observe the interaction and in order for them to be genuine we would need to be able to text them out. So in order for us to be objective we would be able to have the ability to separate what is true and what is not and that is only achieved by testing it. The study of human and mental, social life should be researched and through empirical science it is a possibility, when this is done we are able to establish these disciplines as social sciences. Empiricism is found in the basis of positivism.
Rationalism and empiricism are two methods that can be understood under the concept of epistemology, psychology and philosophy of psychology to understand where the source of knowledge comes from. “In psychology and its philosophy, empiricism and rationalism concern the sources of psychological states and capacities that may include, but are not confined to, state of knowledge (Longworth, 2009).” Rationalism states a priori knowledge, deduction and the concept of an active mind. According to rationalist, our minds have innate set of principles and skills. If we only use our logic in accordance with these principles is enough to obtain accurate information about all the objects that make up the universe. “Knowledge of a particular subject
To get a better understanding of human beings and the world, he begins by asking “what is the meaning of Being in general?” In other words, “what things are” is only accessible insofar they are intelligible to us; we should inquiry them by clarifying the meaning of things in general. And, clarifying of things in general “is tantamount to clarifying the possibility of having any understanding of Being at all – an understanding which itself belongs to the constitution of the entity called Dasein” , namely human being. In order to analyze meaning of the Being, we need to analyze meaning of the Being of human being. But the inquiry of the existentiell analytic of Dasein is not enough according to Heidegger. We need to ask what the existential structure of Dasein is.
Thus the collective actions are visible for the researcher through language that was used to describe their actions, themselves and the consequences. This signs and symbols is the empirical data that enables the researcher to gain knowledge on their role and influence on the construction of the social reality, but still it is not only conditioned
In this passage from The Ethics of Authenticity the author Charles Taylor is writing on the topic of authenticity on what it means to for people to have unique lives and to be different from those in our society. In the first part of the passage Taylor points out that modern society believes that morality comes is rooted in our emotions and is found within ourselves. He claims that this morality within can often be drowned out by our passions in life and by our society around us (Taylor 51). He argues that our modern society believes that morality should not be affected by our society but should come solely from within ourselves not from our environment. This means that an individual can only discover what is moral by looking within and listening
Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism & semiotics, the general study of signs which developed from the structuralist program, have a complex theory of the way signs work but, in essence, we may say that the categories of meaning (words) are comprised in a system of binary oppositions: white & black, body & mind, the sacred & the profane, individual & collectivity. We are engaged, then, in the study of signs & sign systems. Structuralism analyzes society & elements of society via binary oppositions that it sees as essential to the way the brain works. Post structuralism, on the other hand, sees this binary dualism as an aspect of Western thought & not universal. For postmodernism, meaning & the categories of thought are shifting & unstable.
“Realm of Ends” formulation of the categorical imperative, states that we must “act in accordance with the maxims of a member giving universal laws for merely possible kingdom of ends.” (4:439) It acts as a social contract. Kant further explains it that “a rational being belongs as a member of the kingdom of ends when he gives universal laws in it but is also himself subject to those laws.” (4:434) Being subject to a law does not contradict with the concept of a rational being as an end in itself, because it is not like a slavery since it is not subject to arbitrary will. Just the opposite, since it draws central points from the first and second formulation, “the will of a member could regard itself as at the same time giving universal law through its maxim” (4:434) and no member will see another member as a mere mean. On the other hand, autonomy is not equal to self-mastery. For Kant, it is essentially social.
For a structuralist, meaning comes through knowing how things fit together, not from understanding things in isolation” (p. 120). Furthermore, according to McGee and Warms (2008), “[s]tructuralists believe that cultural phenomena are the product of universal logical processes that organize human thought. And a fundamental characteristic of human thought, according to structuralists, is to sort data into binary oppositions” (p. 346). This notion of a binary structure was pioneered by the Prague School of linguists, whose theories greatly influenced Levi-Strauss’ structuralism. One key insight of the Prague School was that “words were built upon contrasts (binary oppositions) between phonemes rather
To what does Skinner attribute our behavior? He believed that genetics and the way a person is treated in society and the education he has determines the way he will behave. He thought that a person could be predicted through the laws of nature based on these facts. Page 367 6. How does Skinner characterize our freedom?
Ethnomethology refers to the research method focused on the way that participants in a social setting create and sustain a sense of reality. Many of Boas’ ideologies revolved around his concerns of how the varied individual and cultural characteristics of a group affected their perceptions of reality (Moberg, 2013, 142). This methodology shows in his discussions on how one culture cannot be generalized or diminished by another. He viewed culture as being undefinable in the idea that it can be defined through the discerning lens of a ‘higher’ culture’s views. A culture’s qualities must be
Summary: Charles Taylor addresses the connection between identity and recognition within “The Politics of Recognition”. The need for individuals to understand who they are as an individual is key, society constructs a structure for individuals to abide by in order to create a like-minded society, but within each individual is an individuality that clashes with that oppressive structure. Taylor argues that one cannot be expected to live their life in a manner in which another specific individual would like them to, and therefore the only proper way for an individual to live their life is in a manner consistent with their own individuality Taylor argues for the necessity of language as well as human exchanges. It is through communication that we are able to express who we are to others, and we are crucially dependent on these communications in order to express to the world who we are. It is easy to wrongfully categorize that which is not us, and Taylor addresses the importance of recognizing and accepting the uniqueness not just within us but within others