Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common illness and growing cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world especially the United States. Currently, COPD is the third leading cause of death in U.S. COPD is often preventable and treatable. Patients with COPD often become symptomatic during the middle adult years around 40 years and above, and the occurrence of the disease increases with age. Majority patients with COPD seek medical attention late in the course of their disease. Clinical disease of COPD is characterized by recognizable clinical sign and symptoms distinguish by three main symptoms, cough, sputum production, and dyspnea on exertion. These symptoms are present all the time and worsen over time.
Cough is a
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It is usually progressive over months or years and becomes persistent over time. In early stages of COPD, patients often modify their behavior in order to cope with the sensation of breathlessness. Patients generally assume that the symptoms was due to growing old age. As the lung function starts to decline, breathlessness begin to interfere with patient’s daily activities. This is also known as dyspnea on exertion where it occurs during exercise, for example, climbing upstairs, walking up hills. Above all, all these can be avoided by appropriate behavioral changes such as using a lift, asking help from others, or avoiding exercise or any form of physical efforts. However, as COPD progresses, dyspnea may occur at rest or even at minimal exertion. Consequently, weight loss is common where dyspnea interferes with eating and the work of breathing is energy…show more content…
Wheezing is a whistling sound produces when the air attempt to flow through a narrow passage in the lungs. This indicates the airway narrowing of the lungs may be due to mucus accumulation, swelling and spasms. Wheezing happens in COPD patients when a patient develops infection in the lungs. Similarly, some patients might complaint of chest pain which is common in COPD due to muscle pain. In addition to, fatigue is also been reported experienced by COPD patients. As we know earlier that, COPD reduces the amount of airflow in the lungs hence it reduces the oxygen supply to the body which in turn causes fatigue in patient.
Even though there is no cure for COPD, this disease can be managed well since its progression is slow by taking the right steps towards a healthy lifestyles. Management of COPD patients can be divided into pharmacological therapy and non-pharmacological therapy. Bronchodilators are the foundation of the pharmacological therapy for COPD. Bronchodilators functions is to relieve bronchospasm by modifying the smooth muscle tone and diminish airway obstruction by allowing increased oxygen supply throughout the lungs and improving alveolar

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