INTRODUCTION In this paper I tried to argue that how growth does not lead to proper reduction of poverty. There are other factors also which helps us to understand poverty broadly. Among the factors I have talked about inequality and its relation with poverty. First part of the paper tries to give an overview of how to measure poverty and define it. It also talks about importance of considering all factors in determining the poverty line.
“ We have fought war on poverty and poverty won”, is one of the most famously quotes of Ronald Regan. The meaning behind this quote is that America has been struggling to overcome poverty over years, but as years keeps increasing so do the number of people living poor. The percentage in poverty did decrease in 2000 but today it still affects 15 million people. According to Peter Edelman’s article “ Poverty In America: Why Cant We End It”, there are four reasons why America has not achieved to decrease the number of poverty: Low- wage jobs, households headed by single parent, welfare, and gender/ race. The plan that America has to improve this number of 15 million is by providing food stamps, enacting programs, and social security.
1.0 Introduction Life expectancy, as indicator of development, varies widely throughout the many regions of the world. It is reflective of a country’s net welfare position and circumstances that exist in that country. Life expectancy is associated with socio-economic and economic factors like income, the level of health care, education, sanitation, and other factors such as the availability of clean water, disease and crime. As Mahfuz Kabir (2008) puts it, life expectancy is a function of economic factors and non-economic factors. Based on this assumption, a country life expectancy then becomes dependent on the quality of the combination of factors that exist within that country.
Poverty can also be defined into absolute or relative terms. The first concept has to be with the income necessary to meet basic needs, like food, clothing and shelter. On the other hand, the second concept takes into account the social and cultural aspect of someone’s life, defining poor as the failure to meet some pre-established standards of living in a certain societal context.
Title: Why is care work under-valued and under-rewarded? Key Words: paid and unpaid care work, wage penalties, undervaluation Abstract This literature review draws upon relevant literature on undervaluation and relative wage penalties of work associated with care. By dividing care work into paid and unpaid, the article departs from the fact that most care work is under-valued and under-paid, despite some exceptions. It aims at investigating the reason that causes the current phenomenon, via comparing and inducing different frameworks and theories. The article reveals that the “public good” theory is the major explanation to undervaluation of care work.
In David S. Landes book, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, he decides to take a historical approach on the reasons behind why some people remain poor and how others are so rich by trying to comprehend the reasons that lead to advances in economies and modernization in certain regions around the world over the past few decades. In other words by asking how we have come to where we are today in the sense of making, getting and spending. Throughout the book, Landes talks about how we live in a world filled with inequality and diversity therefore leading to classifying those who are poor and unable to afford medical health care living in the North and the wealthy in the South. David S. Landes aim was to basically make people aware of how it is actually geography that is responsible for this division between countries that have caused a lot of hardship for the unprivileged people by making it impossible for them to improve economically as a result of their geographical location on the map.
Global hunger and poverty are challenges that have always threatened the mankind. Millions of people around the world, specifically those in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, have suffered extreme conditions of malnutrition and low income that affected other aspects of their lives such as their welfare, education, job opportunities and so on (1). As these challenges have reached their worst levels during the late 90s, the United Nations gathered to, collaboratively, alleviate their effects resulting in the prominent Millennium project, which proposed goals to be achieved over a certain period of time (2). In addition, the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) mainly focused on halving the number of the poor and hungry people in the world from 800 million to 400 million over a period of 25 years from 1990 to 2015 (2). Fortunately, throughout the period 1998-2002 many improvements took place that facilitated the reduction of poverty and hunger in the developing countries in Asia such as China (2).
Over the past decade, poverty has been an issue that affects communities but, have we asked ourselves what poverty means? According to World Health Organization approximately 1.2 billion people in the world live in extreme poverty (less than one dollar per day). In fact, the poverty forms in many patterns or disappears behind lots causes; however, it is difficult to restrict the poverty in single definition especially when it associated with the health. On the other hand, poverty is influenced by financial, economic, political and social factors which contribute interchangeably to raise the poverty lines in some countries. Therefore, poverty causes ill-health because it forces some people to live in the worst environments and conditions and
According to Burgess and Roberts (2003) and Roberts and Burgess (2004), financial stress is a major issue concerning homelessness. Yates claims that “financial stress has been defined as a situation of having insufficient financial resources to meet basic requirements to maintain a reasonable standard of living.” A recent development in our country more or less has enhance people’s life expenditure. First and foremost, low wages and high rent are largely the reason why financial stress occur especially for those with family. They are going to endure insufficient money to pay for rent, household bills and even their daily expenses. In fact, high housing cost and lack of affordable house are largely contributed to higher rent.
. Many people perceive illiteracy and ill health as the important causes of poverty and thus overcoming these conditions may be one of the ways to curb poverty. Human capital is a means of achieving livelihood objectives. It determines people’s personal capabilities and also defines how livelihood assets should be used. Financial capital: financial or economic capital (credit/debit, cash, savings, economic assets), are important for the attainment of any livelihood strategy.
In America there is a very real financial divide among the people. Financial stability starts with education, although a large portion of the American population cannot afford it. Depending on your parents economic standing you may or may not be able to afford college, among other things. College opens the door for many opportunities, including having the capacity to provide for your family. Various authors today are still writing about the ongoing issue of poverty and the ways to climb out of it.
People who have low wage jobs live paycheck to paycheck and rely on public assistance as a supplement. Poverty has a negative effect on families such as access to resources, school choice, and social mobility. Minimum wages have been stagnant since 2009 Congress refuses to increase the wages. A solution to end poverty is to increase wages and create jobs. Most Republican politician agrees on cutting public assistance programs.