Throughout the world, the best agricultural land is already fully utilized and hence marginal land including saline soil is being brought to agriculture. Salinity is an environmental challenge that severely limits plant growth, reduces cultivatable land area, crop productivity and quality worldwide (Hossain et al., 2012 and Shrivastava & Kumar, 2015) and according to FAO survey as cited by Plaut et al. (2013) that over 800 million ha in near future will be affected by salinity, making it a major constraint to food production for a steadily increasing population. Soil salinity refers to the content of water soluble mineral salts primarily sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and chloride, in the soil. Soil salinity could be a result of either the intrusion of seawater into the agricultural area, or of a raise in salt-affected groundwater.
If salinity as occurred in that area, wilted plant and leaf burn would be shown on the plant/s salinity affected. Another factor to consider is finding clovers within crops as if they are affected by salinity the pasture quality and quantity will decrease. When plant seems stressed mixing saline water with channelled water is a factor which might help the plant continue growing and spreading. Figure 5 shows what plants are salt tolerant from 0 – 5.00 dS/m; to which clovers are very weak and salt bushes are one of the strongest. Using salt bushes to feed the cattle will help the salinity problem as salt bush suck out all the salt in the ground and other crops used to feed the cattle may not be needed therefore having more space to grow other crops.
(Eds. ), Salinity Tolerance in Plants: Strategies for Crop Improvement. Wiley, New York, pp. 155–159. Effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence systems in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Khaled Taïbi a,c,d,⁎, Fadhila Taïbi a, Leila Ait Abderrahim a, Amel Ennajah b, Moulay Belkhodja c, José Miguel Mulet.
Seed germination is crucial when looking at a seed's life. It is the beginning of its existence and plays a key role in how the seed will grow from there on out. When looking at seed germination dealing with various salt concentrations, the outcome of the experiment can result in many factors. If salt concentrations affect the rate of seed germination, then a positive control of water would germinate faster than the affected seeds with various diluted salt concentrations. In the end, the effect of the assorted salt concentrations does tend to slow down the rate of germination with all of the different concentrations.
The conversion of forest to perennial crops usually results in lower levels in the rates soil fertility decline because – to some extent - these systems mimic the forest cover (Hartemink, 2005b). Nonetheless, both erosion and soil chemical changes can be significant in the early stages of crop development when the canopy is not closed and the
Aspect 3: The effect desertification has on soils. Desertification is defined as the spread of desert conditions into areas which have not previously experienced such conditions. An example of this is the expansion of the Sahel desert, which moves south at an approximate speed of 10 kilometres per
Salt stress is a major environmental stress, which affects seed germination, plant growth and development, metabolic processes and productivity (Al-Taisan, 2010). Salt primarily have two types of effect on the growing plants specific effect due to rising of osmotic pressure of the soil solutions in and around the root zone of the crop (Greenway and Munns, 1980). Salinity effects on Brassica species at germination and early seedling growth, germination rate, shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight (Jamil et al., 2007). Salinity impairs seed germination, reduces nodule formation, retards plant development and reduces crop yield. Although some crops are moderately tolerant of saline conditions and many crops are adversely affected by even low levels of salt (Greenway and Munns, 1980).
Modification of sandy soil hydro-physical environment through bagasse additive under proper laboratory experiment Abd El-Halim Abd El-Halim 1* and Arunsiri Kumlung 2 1 Department of Soil & Water, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tanta, 31527 Tanta, Egypt 2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Kasetsart University, Thailand *, corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Sandy soils until yet can be considered as one group having common hydro-physical problems. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of bagasse as an amendment to improve hydro-physical properties of sandy soil through determine the bulk density, aggregate-size distribution, total porosity,
Soils can be improved but also degraded through fertilization. The choice of the proper kind of fertilizer and the rate of application are very important issues for crop growth and the environment. It was also found that decreases in profit can be due to either over- or under the recommendation of N fertilization (Bullock and Bullock, 1994). Conventional practices can sometimes result in sizeable fertilizer N losses, especially in extremely wet springs in the Corn Belt (Mathesius and Luce, 2009). In fact, only 30 to 50% of applied N is recovered by the crop in many cases (Raun and Johnson, 1999).