The index finger can pass though the transverse sinus, which helps surgeons to identify the blood vessels of the heart during coronary artery bypass surgery. Oblique sinus is formed by reflection of the pericardial membranes onto the pulmonary veins. It is bounded by the inferior vena cava and by the right pulmonary veins on one side and the left pulmonary veins on the other. Functions of the Pericardium The pericardium is known to have some specific functions: • Tethering: pericardium holds the heart in place within the cardiac
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. INTRODUCTION The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is a double circulatory closed system which transports blood via arteries, veins and capillaries to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation and to the rest of the body tissues in the systemic circulation. Since the blood travels to varying distances around the body, the blood vessels have to be adapted to overcome different pressures. The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction.
The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. The human heart is con shaped and has the size of a closed fist. In accordance to that, a bigger person has a bigger fist and therefore a bigger heart. Moreover, it is the only involuntary striated muscle that is consisting of four chambers: two upper chambers “atria” and two lower one “ventricles”, where the right side of the heart is separated from the left side by an inter-ventricular septum, and they are connected by pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. Although the human heart is the first organ that starts development, it takes several stages to be formed (figure1): • First stage: Formation of the primitive heart tube: That is done after the fusion of endocardial
Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates.
The thoracic oesophagus is situated a little to the left in the superior mediastinum between the trachea and the vertebral column. It passes behind and to the right of the aortic arch to descend in the posterior mediastinum along the right side of the descending thoracic aorta. Below, as it inclines left, it crosses anterior to the aorta and enters the abdomen through the diaphragm at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra. From above downwards, the trachea, right pulmonary artery, left main bronchus, pericardium (separating it from the left atrium) and the diaphragm are anterior. The vertebral column, longus colli, right posterior intercostal arteries, thoracic duct, azygos vein and the terminal parts of the hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos
According to Ballard, "Inside the heart there are four spaces called chambers. A thick wall, the septum, separates the two sides the heart. Each side has an upper chamber (atrium) and a lower chamber (ventricle)" (6). Blood flows into the heart from the atria, and leaves from the ventricles, creating the heartbeat
The aim and objectives of this assignment is to express the differences between Anatomy and Physiology, the components of the Circulatory System and the blood. To give detailed description and diagram of the heart also to explain the flow of blood and The Cardiac Cycle. This Assignment includes a detailed study of a disease or condition involving the Cardiovascular System. To carry out a primary piece of research regarding the chosen condition or disease using a case study or a survey on the particular chosen disease or condition regarding the Cardiovascular system. Anatomy: Anatomy is the identification and description of the structures of living things.
(37) The heart is surrounded by pericardial membrane which consists of visceral and parietal portions. (37) The heart is formed of two ventricles and two atria. (37) Each ventricle is cone shaped, with thick wall, pointed apex and broad base. (37) The two ventricles
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDS) Cardiovascular diseases comprise ailments that include the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) or the heart, or together or diseases that disturb the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system, also named as the circulatory system, is the system that transports blood all over the human body. It is composed of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. It delivers oxygenated blood from the lungs and heart through the entire body by the arteries. Blood drives through the capillaries - vessels located between the veins and arteries.
In the case of meningiomas, the tumor origin can be found anywhere along the surface of the dura. A general rule is that the neuraxis is displaced to the side opposite to the tumor origin. Therefore, posterior meningiomas put pressure on the spinal cord anteriorly and for this reason are better approached directly with a laminectomy. Posterolateral and lateral meningiomas displace the neuraxis anteromedially and medially, respectively. A posterolateral approach is advocated, by laminectomy possibly extended on the tumor side to the medial aspect of the facets.