Circuit Courts Dbq

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It was the Presidential election of 1800 where Thomas Jefferson won against John Adams. Around this time, Congress had passed the Judiciary Act of 1801. This act altered the Judiciary Act of 1789 in establishing ten new district courts. This was to expand the number of circuit courts from three to six, add additional judges to each circuit, and give the President the authority to appoint Federal judges and justices of the peace. This act also reduced the number of Supreme Court justices from six to five. On March 3, Adams, in an attempt to prevent the incoming Democratic-Republican Congress and administration, appointed 16 Federalist circuit judges and 42 Federalist justices of the peace to offices created by the Judiciary Act of 1801. There…show more content…
Madison, the Constitution called for the creation of a federal government with the following three branches which include the legislative, executive, and judiciary. Article I created Congress, the legislative, lawmaking, body. Article II created the office of the President, who executes, or carries out, the laws. Article III created the federal court system that consist of one Supreme Court and other lower courts. The meaning of Article III was left open to interpretation. In 1789, shortly after the Constitution was ratified, Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the federal court system. Congress created a Supreme Court, three circuit courts, and 13 district court, one district court for each of the 13 states. The Constitution was not specific about the number of justices that could be appointed to the Supreme Court. Through the Judiciary Act, Congress provided for a Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. The Constitution and Congress left the extent of the Court's power not clear. The powers would slowly be defined through the Court's explanation of the…show more content…
This was so that the Judicial branch once again operated under the orders of the original Judiciary Act of 1789. It also replaced the court's two annual sessions with one session to begin on the first Monday in February, and canceled the Supreme Court term scheduled for June of that year, 1802. This tried to delay a ruling on the constitutionality of the repeal act until months after the new judicial system was in progress. Early Chief Justices had a very little influence on the management of the Supreme Court. But John Marshall, who served from 1801 to 1835, impacted the action of the Supreme Court in ways still felt in the United States today.During the early years when Marshall was appointed Chief Justice, there was an insignificant case that came about the Supreme Court. However, it was that case, Marbury v. Madison, that became one of the most important Supreme Court decisions in United States
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