There are various techniques: UV-SPECTROSCOPY: Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared (NIR)) ranges. In this region of 200nm-700nm the molecules undergo electronic transitions. This is based upon the beer lambert law which states that whenever a monochromatic light is passed through a absorbing sample then the decrease in the light intensity is exponentially proportional to the concentration and the thickness of the sample: I0 = intensity of incident light I = intensity of transmitted light c = concentration of the medium l = thickness of the
Every time a protein is displaced by another, a fraction of the first protein will remain on the surface. The magnitude of this fraction will depend on how long the protein remained on the surface before displacement, that is, on the time of two successive protein peaks. Larger differences in diffusivity and smaller differences in surface affinity will increase the tie between peaks, and consequently the magnitude of non-elutable protein on the surface and final composition of the adsorbed layer. Finally, the flow of solution will increase the diffusion or transport rates of the all proteins to the surface. This in effect decrease the differences in diffusion rates and will cause all the protein peaks to occur earlier and cause a crowding of these peaks.
we can called the cholesteric phase since it was first experiential for cholesterol derivatives. Only chiral molecules can provide such phase. This phase exhibits a slanting of the molecules vertically to the director, with the molecular axis similar to the director. This restricted twist angle between neighboring molecules is due to their asymmetric packing, which consequences in longer-range chiral order. The molecules have positional ordering in a layered structure (as in the other smectic phases), in the smectic C* phase (an asterisk denotes a chiral phase), with the molecules tilted by a finite angle with respect to the layer normal.
DNA synthesis. When primers detect and limit the amplification DNA sequence on two sides, the thermostable DNA polymerase synthesizes a complementary fragment from the 3 'end of the primers from both DNA single chain fragments using the nucleotides added to the mixture. The procedure is carried out at 72 ° C, using a thermostable Taq polymerase. APPLICATIONS: The ability of the PCR to analyze a very small amount of DNA plays an important role in disease diagnostics. One of the important uses of PCR is the diagnosis of possible AIDS infection at a very early stage even before antibodies have developed .
After filtration, it was centrifuged. The supernatant was then isolated and used for fractionation. Fractionation: Precipitation of proteins from a solution may be accomplished by fractional precipitation techniques using salts, organic solvents or pH. The first method of protein precipitation was by using salts. Sodium phosphate with pH 7 was used.
CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS: After successful extraction of phospholipids from their source analysis can be performed for the detection of specific phospholipids. This section will discuss chromatographic methods used for the analysis of phospholipids. All systems of chromatography consist of a stationary and mobile phase. A monster placed on a stationary phase, i.e., a solid or a liquid, and the mobile phase, a gas or a liquid, is allowed by modifying the system. The components of the sample will be separated on the basis of their ranging physical and chemical properties, imparting different affinities for the two phases.
The two main paradigms that are used for describing these are using the objective, scientific-based positivist approach and the subjective, phenomological-based interpretivist approach. Since the positivist approach is grounded on a foundation of empirical testing, it looks largely at hypotheses and determines cause and effect relationships based on largely deductive logic as well as the validity and reliability of the research studies conducted. The interpretivist paradigm uses multiple perspectives of reality since this is based on a contextual interpretation of the issues being examined, where reality is a fluid construct and depends on who is being observed under a particular set of
A pharmaceutical company looking for a new drug for fighting bacteria or virus must first find a molecule capable of inhibiting active proteins (enzymes) which are involved in the attack of human cells. Knowing the exact form of the protein allows scientists to design the composition of the active substances of the drug that can be fixed on the active sites of the protein, and thus stop their harmful activity. Crystallography is also essential to distinguish different solid forms of a drug. These forms can be soluble under different conditions, which influences the effectiveness of the
Detection and quantitation limits Sensitivity of the developed method was evaluated by calculating the detection and quantitation limits. These limits were calculated using the formula; LOD=3.3σ/S and LOQ=10σ/S for limits of detection and quantitation, respectively, where σ is the standard deviation of intercept and S is the slope of calibration curve. The obtained LOD and LOQ values were 0.022 and 0.068 μg mL-1, respectively (Table 2). These values indicates that the high sensitivity of the developed method as it can quantify a concentration of the studied drug down to the nano-gram level. 3.5.3.
The Secondary structure of protein consists of four structures such as alpha helix, beta sheet, coil and turn structure. Secondary structure prediction techniques are shown in fig 2.1 Statistical Methods Chou-Fasman (CF) Method Chou et. al. (1974)., proposed the Chou-Fasman method is the one of the first method for the implementation of secondary structure prediction of protein. The method involves a matrix of two values: propensity values, a given amino acid will appear within the structure and frequency values, found in a hairpin turn for a provided amino acid.