Circumcision Research Paper

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Introduction: Circumcision is a surgical procedure to remove all or part of the foreskin of the penis. It is one of the most common surgical practice performed worldwide. Foreskin is a loose skin which covers the glans penis. The removal of some or all female external genitalia is known as female genital cutting or female genital mutilation. Somalia has the highest female circumcision. Circumcision is practised usually on infants for cultural, religious belief, family reasons, aesthetics, reasons of medical and health need. Circumcision is done sometimes with or without the anaesthetic on infants who are few days old or it can be done at hospital with general anaesthetic. Circumcision has been practised for thousands of years on both male…show more content…
Neonatal circumcision is common than adult men and older boys. Circumcision is done aseptically with proper excision of inner and outer skin layers of foreskin so that glans and opening of urethra can be protected. Circumcision techniques can be one or combination of dorsal slit, shield and clamp, and excision. Shield and clamp method use device for circumcision. The Mogen clamp is used for clamp method. With this method foreskin is pulled out above the glans penis and clamp is placed around the glans while protecting it during the excision. The clamp around the head of the penis stops the blood supply to the prepuce. The foreskin distal to clamp is removed and the wound is bandaged which usually heals after the few days. Excessive bleeding or people with haemophilia are the major concern in this technique. The other technique is plastibell where plastic bell is placed around the glans penis and suture material is tied tightly around the groove. The suture around the glans penis cuts off the blood supply to the foreskin, as a result it withers and falls off in 7-10 days. Failure of foreskin to fall off and the necrosis of the glans are the few complications of this method. There are few other methods which use device, for example; gomco, zhenxi rings, tara klamp, smart klamp, shang ring and prepex. The other methods are where prepuce is cut off with scalpel or scissors. Urinary retention, bleeding, infection, necrosis are few…show more content…
Circumcision done without the medical necessity should not be recommended. There are some serious complications while performing this practice, and it can cause necrosis and infection of penis. This procedure should always be performed in an aseptic condition and by trained medical personnel. The health benefits associated with circumcision against infections are statistically very low. So this practice should not be recommended for all infants. Circumcision done for health benefits of children for the future. But this does not warrant the benefit that are hoped for. Female circumcision is a genital mutilation and it is a serious violation of human right. Any circumcision done against the person’s will should be banned. Male circumcision does have some evidence against transmission of the HIV infection. The countries which have endemic HIV infection should only recommend circumcision along with other preventive measures. Then only the spread of HIV can be controlled. Parents who want to circumcise their children should have medically accurate and right information regarding the risks, outcomes and possible health benefits of circumcision. There should be clear guidelines on the procedures of surgical circumcision techniques along with the use with of appropriate anaesthetic. Neonatal circumcision done for aesthetic reason should be discouraged. Penile cancer is very rare and it can be due to various
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