Ltd. 4 Melting point Sentwin India 5 NMR Bruker Advance II 400MHz 7 Heating Mantle Inco 6 Structure builder Chem draw Ultra 8.0 4.2 Experimental work: 4.2.1 General procedure for Chalcones: 2’-hydroxy acetophenone or 2’-hydroxy propiophenone (0.2ml) and substituted benzaldehydes (0.5 g) were mixed in the round bottom flask. After that 40% NaOH solution (4g NaOH in 10 ml of distilled water) and ethanol were added in round bottom flask. The reaction mixture was stirred upto 6-48 hours. Completion of reaction was monitored in TLC plate (n-Hexane: Ethyl acetate 9:1). The reaction mixture was poured into ice cold water acidify with 1% HCl and precipitates were collected, filtered and dried and recrystalized with ethanol.
Cellular respiration happens in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The three main stages of cellular respiration: 1.Glycolysis - this is the splitting of sugars. It has glucose, a 6 carbon sugar is separated into 2 molecules of a three carbon sugar. This happens in the cytoplasm of the cell. During the process, two molecules of ATP, and of pyruvic acid and 2 electron carrying molecules of NADH are created.
Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes. After reflux, we removed the reaction mixture from the apparatus and cooled it for several minutes. We transferred the mixture to the beaker that contained water (30 mL). We cooled the mixture to room temperature and added sodium carbonate to neutralize the mixture. We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8.
2.4.1. Tetramethyl glucose acetylation 1gm of tetramethyl glucose was dissolved in 5ml of acetic anhydride and added to fused sodium acetate of 0.375gm and mixed for 10 minutes and allowed to cool. To this mixture 7.5ml of toluene and 5ml of dry ether were added. The whole mixture evaporated to syrup on a water bath at 50 °C. The product dissolved in the dry ether after washing with toluene.
Top agar was dispensed into 50ml test tubes and then autoclaved for 15 minutes at 121℃ as well. Stored the top agar at -5℃ refrigerator when it cooled down. Preheated top agar for 20 minutes to liquefy before use. The optimal dispense temperature for top agar was 45℃. 3.3.4 Preparation of CaCl2 solution The molecular weight of CaCl2 was 111 g/mole.
Wash with 95% ethanol and wash with water after 15 seconds. 7. Stained counterstain with fuchsine and wash with water after 60 seconds. 8. Remove excess water from the surface of the gram stained glass slide and observed under 1000X oil immersion microscope.
Squalene undergoes a two-step cyclization to yield lanosterol catalyzed by sequalene mono-oxygenase and sequalene 2, 3 epoxidase enzymes. Sequalene mono oxygenase is the second committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis and lead to the formation squalene 2, 3 epoxide. This enzymatic reaction require supernatant protein factor (SPF) and NADPH as a cofactor to introduce molecular oxygen as an epoxide at the 2, 3 position of squalene. The activity of supernatant protein factor itself is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation (Singh et al., 2003). Through a series of 19 additiona lreactions, lanosterol is converted to cholesterol.
Placed the four test tubes into foam microtube holder and placed in water bath to incubate at 37 degrees Celsius for 45 minutes. Ms. Lovrien added 5 L of 10x loading solution to tubes labeled 1-4. Placed samples in the refrigerator overnight. After returning to class the next day, obtained a gel tray that contained 0.8% agarose with TAE buffer. Removed that comb and tape.
B.Glycosylated haemoglobin (GHb) separation : 1-Remove cap from the ion – exchange resin tubes and label as test . 2-Add 0.1ml of the haemolysate from step A in to the appropriately labeled ion exchange resin tubes . 3-Insert a resin separator in to each tube so that the ubber sleeve is approximately 1cm above the liquid level c the resin suspension . 4-Mix the tubes on a rocker , rotator or a vortex mixer continuously for 5
EC 3 are hydrolases, which forms two products from the substrate via hydrolysis. (Bach, et al. 1961) This is seen in the equation: L- Arginine + H2OL-Ornithine + Urea (Nelson and Cox 2008). The urea cycle is the procedure where ammonia is transformed into to urea. Throughout the urea cycle, the amino acid, arginine, is changes into ornithine- this is another amino acid when hydrated, that is when water was added.