Before sowing, the seeds were surface sterilized with a mixed solution containing 49% sterile double-distilled water (DDW), 50% ethanol, and 1% sodium hypochlorite for 5 minutes, then vigorously rinsed with sterile DDW. The tomato seeds were germinated on 2 sheets of sterilized filter paper in a Petri dish (12-cm diameter). The Petri dishes were kept in the dark for germination. 2.2. SP and NO treatments under NaCl stress After two weeks of germination treatments were applied to each Petri Dish.
MATERIALS AND METHODS A.IN VITRO: Effects of Jatropha curcas Seed oil as Potential Insecticide Against Pseudococcus elisae Preparation of Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil Jatropha curcas fruits were collected in Lubo Zone 1, Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur. The fruits were brought directly to the Santa Cruz National High School (SCNHS) laboratory. The fruits were then washed with clean water and then placed into an aluminum basin. The fruits were pounded using mortar and pestle to remove the peelings. When the peelings were removed, the seeds were pounded to get the nut inside.
Also found in grapefruit is the related compound kaempferol, which has a hydroxyl group next to the ketone group. Naringenin can be absorbed from cooked tomato paste. Metabolism: The enzyme naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase uses dimethylallyl diphosphate and (−)-(2S)-naringenin to produce diphosphate and 8-prenylnaringenin. Biodegradation Cunninghamella elegans, a fungal model organism of the mammalian
bronchiseptica biofilm formation was evaluated by using a microtiter dish assay following the methodology described previously . For each strain, 100 µl of a bacterial suspension adjusted to an optical density at 650 nm (OD650) of 0.05 were inoculated into the corresponding wells of microtiter plate. Plates were incubated statically at 36oC for 24 or 48 h. For 48 h cultures, the growth medium was entirely replaced with a fresh one after 24 h. To quantify biofilm formation, the liquid medium containing planktonic bacteria was firstly removed from each well. The remaining adhered biomass in every well was gently washed twice with PBS and subsequently stained for 20 min with a 0.1 % p/v Cristal Violet (CV) solution. After staining the CV solution was removed and every well was washed twice with distilled water.
2,2’-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), Folin-Ciocalteu Phenol reagent, sodium carbonate, β-carotene, linoleic acid, Tween 40, sodium nitrite, aluminum chloride, sodium hydroxide, ascorbic acid, gallic acid and quercetin were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Sigma Chemical Co., St Louis, MO, USA). All the chemicals were of analytical grade. 2.2. Preparation of Plant Extracts The whole fruits of B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa were collected from Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The fruits were cleaned and separated from the seed.
BHK-21 cells were seeded on the 24-well collagen gel coated plate, containing Hank 's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) with Phenol Red (BioWhittaker™, Lonza, Belgium), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco Invitrogen, Milan, Italy), with 1% penicillin/ streptomycin (Sigma-Aldrich, Inc., St. Louis, USA), at density of 3×104 cells per well. Some wells were kept untreated as controls to compare with tests. The medium was changed every 2 days. At days 1 and 2, the cells on the collagen gels were observed by an inverted light microscope (DMI3000 B; Leica,
Chapter 3: Methods 3.1 Total RNA extraction from cacao tissue. 3.1.1 RNA extraction and purification The plant leaves are collected from Taman Koko, Tawau, Sabah. The RNA extraction of T.cacao are performed using tertiary-butanol protocol. Mortars, pestles and spatula were soaked overnight in a 0.1% (v/v) solution of diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) and then were autoclaved before use. Eighty milligrams of cacao leaves were grind in liquid nitrogen and then transferred into a 2µL sterile microcentrifuge tube.
For bacterial sporulation, fresh cultures of Alicyclobacillus strains in AAM broth were spread-plated onto AAM agar and incubated at 45°C for 3–7 days. After incubation sporulation was confirmed by microscopy following staining with 5% malachite green and 0.5% saffron malachite green. After reaching more than 80% of sporulation, spores were harvested by a mild agitation of Petri plates using a glass spreader after adding 5 mL of distilled water. (Torlak, 2014; Evelyn & Silva, 2016). The spore suspensions were centrifuged (3600 g, 10 min) and washed three times with sterile distilled water.
Dye Removal Experiments: 2.2.1. Mango seed powder-The dye used in all the experiments was methylene blue, a cationic dye. Dye solution was prepared by dissolving weighed amount methylene blue in 1 L of distilled water. Firstly for calculating contact time we performed the experiment at 30oC but we got unclear solution after experiment then we drop normal water which results to know the bleaching effect of raw material. So several washings of raw material were done to remove bleaching effect.
(2010). Adsorption ofcopper from aqueous solution by activated carbons obtained bypyrolysis of cassava peel. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 87(2), 188–193. Baquero, M.C. ; Giraldo, L.; Moreno, J.C.; Suárez-García, F.; Martínez-Alonso, A.; and Tascón, J.M.D.