Basil and mint are both versatile herbs that belong to the Lamiaceae family. Basil is widely used in Mediterranean dishes while mint is more popular in the Middle East and parts of Asia. These two herbs share certain qualities but also have very definite differences. In this SPICEography Showdown, we will compare mint and basil to highlight their differences and similarities. Do basil and mint differ in flavor?
Conclusively, it has been shown that citrus fruits are abundant in macronutrients and are also noticed as source of many micronutrients which are essential for maintaining human health and normal growth (Rouseff and Nagy 1994; Economos and Clay 1999). Among the commercial citrus fruits, lemon (citrus×limon) is considered as one of the most important horticultural products worldwide (USDA 2013). The horticultural yield and fruit quality of lemon trees are frequently influenced by a wide range of biotic stresses. Among them, Xanthomonas citri subsp citir strain A (Xc) causing citrus canker disease with a broad host range is the most destructive threat to lemon production (Brunings and Gabriel 2003). Citrus canker disease is characterized by using symptoms such as water-soaked eruptions, circular and pustule-like lesions which will appear on all plant tissues (Brunings and Gabriel 2003).
Pineapple is the most significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family. Bromeliaceae family is split into three subfamilies, which included Pitcairnioideae, Tillandsiodeae and Bromelioideae (Kuppusamy, 2012). Pineapple is included in the subfamily Bromelioideae, order Bromeliales, genus Ananas and species comosus. It is a perennial evergreen herbaceous and monocotyledonous fruit tree that produces one of the most famous tropical fruits besides maize, banana and citrus. The genus Ananas has distinctive characteristics which merging the whole inflorescence into a huge compound fruit.
This week’s reading topic is about Johnny Appleseed. In the Smithsonian article “The Real Johnny Appleseed Brought Apples- and Booze- to the American Frontier” by Natasha Geiling, it talks about the original purpose of the apple that were brought by John Chapman, a prolific nurseryman, to the frontier. Unlike today apples, the apples in the early 1800s plants by Chapman, were not primary used for eating. Instead, “they were used to make America 's beverage-of-choice at the time, hard apple cider.” During the early 1800s, in purpose of making a profit from the incoming frontiersmen, Chaman took advantage of cultivating orchards by advancing just ahead of settlers, as they wander from Pennsylvania to Illinois. From here, Chapman proceed to make a sell with the frontiersmen when they arrived.
Pectin is a plant polysaccharide which contains a high proportion of galacturonic acid residues1. Pectin is used by Food industry for its gel-forming abilities in production of jams and jellies, to increase the viscosity of drinks and as stabilizers in acid milk products1. Pectin has also been studied for its anti-cancer properties2. Commercially, pectin is derived from apple pomace and citrus peel. Apart from these, mango wastes3, sugar beet wastes4, sunflower heads5, Roselle calyces6, dragon fruit7, watermelon rind8, cocoa husks9 and papaya wastes10 have been studied for alternate sources of pectin.
Materials and methods Plant materials Fruits of three citrus cultivars of Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC. ), Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and Pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr.) were obtained at the mature stage from local market around Phitsanulok province area during July to September, 2014. Chemicals and reagents Ethanol and ethyl acetate were purchased from Phathumwan?, Thailand. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and Tween 80 were purchased from Loba Chemie, India.
However, it is well accepted that glycerol mass formation is currently achieved through the transesterification process due to the dramatic increase in the capacity of biodiesel production . Biodiesel is a biodegradable and renewable fuel that comprises of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of glycerides with methanol. With the increasing in worldwide biodiesel production, resulting in a major concern on the by-product generated from of biodiesel produced by transesterification process. The market for the glycerol by-product of biodiesel production (transesterification process) was rapidly becoming saturated and created excess glycerol of less value as its supply exceeded its demand. Palm oil industry of Malaysia has historically made the country a major player in the biodiesel production that directly influences glycerol market.
The case that I will be talking about today is the case of POM Wonderful LLC vs Coca-Cola Company in which POM Wonderful felt that Coca-Cola was using false advertising to promote its own drink to sell to customers. POM Wonderful makes its own fruits to be used in their fruit chooses and they sell a drink that is made of 100 percent fruit juices with 85 percent being pomegranate juice and the other 15 percent blueberry juice. Coca-Cola also make a juice drink through the Minute Maid division of their company with the label saying pomegranate blueberry in giant letters. The Coca-Cola juice is made with only 0.3 percent of pomegranate juice and 0.2 percent of blueberry juice along with 0.1 percent of raspberry juice and 99.4 percent of a combination of apple and grape juices. The focus of the complaint was that the Coca-Cola juice label had the words pomegranate and blueberry in all capital letters and then underneath that the words got smaller and explained that it was a “flavored blend of 5 juices” and that it was made “from concentrate with added ingredients” (Cheeseman).