Analyse how leadership and management theories. There are a number of different ‘types’ of leadership and management styles used within our large organisation. There are 2 main theories of motivation and management that were developed in the 1960s by Douglas Mcgregor known as Theory X and Theory Y. Within this theory there are 2 general assumptions of how team members are motivated. Theory X is quite rigid in strong supervision and reprimands, where the workers are mainly interested in the wage at the end of the month, whereas the Y Theory is more about the team members having job satisfaction and complete tasks without direct supervision.
Project managers must deal with such risks in a most flexible and economic manner so as to minimize losses of project profitability. Another way of tackling the issue of the importance of control is by examining project failures in order to identify the most effective project control rules. For example, a survey was carried out among 1,450 companies in the public and private sectors (Whittaker, 1999). The main conclusion was that lack of risk management was the most highly ranked factor contributing to project failure. Other contributing factors were lack of required team skills and lack of control.
Truss Construction Shop is deciding to evaluate the safety and health of their shop is by using a Program Evaluation Profile, or PEP. This form, provided by OSHA, is used to “assess employer safety and health programs in general industry workplaces” (Program, 1996). Regardless of if the accident mishap is due to personnel issues, it is exceedingly important for companies to ensure workers are operating in a safe and protective environment. OHSA’s PEP evaluates a work center full circle. It contains six elements, to include management leadership and employee participation, workplace analysis, accident and record analysis, hazard prevention and control, emergency response, and safety and health training (Program, 1996).
• Major issue is troubleshooting • Test maintenance is costly, for instance, playback methods 3.6 Comparison between Manual and Automation testing Manual Testing Automation Testing 1. Time consuming and tiresome: Since test cases are executed by human resources so it is very slow and tedious. 1. Faster than manual testing: Automation testing is faster and does not require human resources. 2.
ABC systems cannot pull information directly from the financial accounts. Rather a separate database has to be maintained. On a regular basis data has to be collected, checked and entered in to the system. This requires more research and involvement of more staff. Lack of trained staff in the field and inadequate budget can be a problem (cost accounting topics- activity based costing, 2015).
Disadvantages of marginal costing compared to absorption costing • Not acceptable under IFRS/IAS or US GAAP • Absorption costing (or ABC) can also help to understand costs in greater detail as marginal costing technique does not analyze fixed costs at all • In practice, it may be difficult to distinguish between variable and fixed costs or the result of doing so may be misleading • Is less appropriate for longer-term planning as fixed costs per unit may vary over the longer time 9.3. Activity based costing (ABC) Activity based costing (ABC) is costing technique, under which all costs are allocated to company activities according to what are the drivers of the activities. Costs are then allocated to products based on product´s consumption of these activities. ABC was developed to overcome the disadvantages of absorption costing, is very appropriate for pricing and product prioritization considerations. But unless this method is adjusted, it is not acceptable under IFRS and US GAAP (mainly because it allocates also selling and administrative overheads).
According to his research, traditional academic aptitude and knowledge content tests seldom predict on-job performance. He went on to argue that the real predictors of job performance are a set of underlying personal characteristics or `competencies'. Hence, the history of competency can be traced in the early 1970s when industrial psychologists and human resource managers were seeking ways to predict job performance. There was a significant evidence to show that personality testing was very poor at predicting job performance (about 10 percent success rate was achievable). At the same time, a number of studies showed that traditional academic aptitude, knowledge tests, school grades and credentials did not predict job performance.
Traditional PERT relies on engine called stochastic analysis that focuses on managing schedules for stochastic project environment. Therefore, the estimated schedule is highly stochastic. A good approximation in beta distribution is obtained only when cv ≤ 0.66. But it is found that 80% of the projects violate the approximation limit that is provided by the beta distribution calculation of PERT. Beta distribution generally reliance on subjective estimates, underestimates stochastic variations.
BASIC PRINCIPLES AND APPROACH METHOD OF CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Nowadays, the challenges in today’s business are facing changing customer’s needs, higher product complexity, enhanced global competition, reduced product life cycle and technological advancement. Customers worldwide are more demanding high product performance, better quality in order for their satisfaction. There are many tools in total quality management in order to satisfy customers in their products with several performance dimensions, such as, high degree of quality, low-cost and short delivery times. One of the tools is the used of concurrent engineering (CE). Concurrent Engineering (CE) is a management philosophy initiated from manufacturing industry.
They check desired output from functioning of the machine. They may also check whether the machinery were working without discrepancies and prepare reports based on the machine conditions. They also servicing the machines which is not properly working. INR 5,79,000 Consultant Consultants are responsible for executing and organizing assigned business projects according to the client’s requirements. They gather information about the client’s requirements through surveys, interviews, reading reports, etc.