Class Theory In British Society

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To fully comprehend social classes in today's British society, as well as in the past, it is necessary to be aware of the theories on classes elaborated by some of the most respectable philosophers. In this section, attention is paid to three prominent philosophers concerning with sociology and to their point of view on class. In order to provide objective and compact picture of class perception throughout the history, two sociologists from the nineteenth and early twentieth century and one from late twentieth and early twenty first century were chosen in order to explain different class theories. The first is Karl Marx, the second one is Max Weber and the last one is Pierre Bourdieu.
Karl Marx, a German philosopher of nineteenth century is
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Similarly to Max Weber, Bourdieu explained class in its broader sense. As he understood that class cannot be explained from economical point of view alone, Bourdieu presented three forms of capitals, based on which social class stratification is elaborated: economic, cultural and social capital. Economic capital is described in a typical way in connection with financies and the ownership of the means of the production. Due to the fact that cultural capital includes various aspects of life such as taste of food, film preferences, use of spare time, usage of language, way of wearing clothes, etc., it can be, according to Bourdieu, further subdivided into three subtypes: embodied, objectified and institutionalized cultural capital (The Forms of Capital, 1986). Andy Blunden, in his article Bourdieu on Status, Class and Culture, explains what cultural capital means in connection with one's social class:

the bourgeois child knows the price of an Impressionist painting at auction and where it should hang in the drawing room, like the working class boy knows who won the World Cup and how to eat a pie. Professionals know from an early age who is a good director, like a young working class girl knows the actors and actresses of popular cinema (Bourdieu on Status, Class and Culture,
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It is a process and requires investment of time. Objectified cultural capital refers to material things which are owned such as instruments (machines) or pieces of art (paintings, writings). It should be mentioned that these objects have not only economic value, as they can be purchased or sold, but also symbolic value as they represent one's social class (The Forms of Capital, 1986). Institutionalized subtype of cultural capital usually refers to different academic qualifications or certificates. These official documents give a certain value in term of cultural capital to its owner. Again, this form of cultural capital can be turned into economic capital by providing its monetary value to the labour market (Ibid). Finally, social capital is a unit consisting of a network of either real or potential relationships and acquaintances which can be found in various environments, for instance, in family, school, neighbourhood or work. These relationships require effort to be built and it is rather a process which costs a lot of time and energy. As a result, social capital can be changed into economic capital by offering its value. Delegation is a significant term when talking about social capital. It gives a responsibility to one person or a small group of individuals who have the right to speak on the behalf of the whole social group. It is

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