It was attempt to remove any superstition from Buddhism and Daoism that had influenced Confucianism during the Han Dynasty. Although Neo-Confucianism was influenced by Daoism and Buddhism, Confucianism did borrow some ideas and concepts from them. “[Neo-Confucianism] of the Song period emphasized self-cultivation as a path not only to self-fulfillment but to the formation of a virtuous and harmonious society and state (Ebrey and Schirokauer).” The Song Dynasty accepted Neo-Confucianism
By analyzing the goodness or evil human nature, they all points out that the only way to become virtuous and morally, or even further, sages, continuous self-cultivation and education are required, in order to enrich the knowledge, also sense of humaneness. These suggestions are coming from their analyses about human nature, which demonstrating the original idea about governing of Confucianism – self-cultivation as the root of regulating all social organizations. Not only the intention of education, but also the emphasizing about the learning environment shows the similarity between Mencius and Hsün Tzu. They both mentioned about the importance of influencing the impact of education by their circumstances. “Yi Chiu (奕秋), who is a master on playing chess in the country.
However, while the main storyline overall does promote the conservative ideology, multiple scenes of the book contain specific attacks on conservative elements. In particular, the story distinctly shows a rejection of the subjection to authority, the passivity of the community and the mindless preservation of stability. To begin with, according to the conservative view, obedience to authority is fundamental. To integrate into the society, individuals are expected to follow orders without questions rather than make their own choices. Consequently, promoting obedience benefits the upper-class by helping them maintain their status and control over the community without being challenged.
Failure of the school of thought would be defined as the discontinuity of the idea due evident historical ineffectiveness in using the idea for governance and social conduct or merely the irrelevance of it to society today. Confucianism Confucianism was a philosophical ideology centralised about social conduct, through the emphasis on humanness within an individual. At the foundation of his beliefs, is the idea of benevolence (仁), a quality that one should aim to achieve. His teachings are primarily about fostering relationships at all levels of society, how one should behave in front of others, towards their elders and to their ancestors. Under the Han and Tang dynasty, Confucianism was adopted as the imperial philosophy and was also promoted amongst its citizens through by establishing the Confucian classics as the basis of the government examination system and the core of the educational curriculum.
David Hume is an outstanding English philosopher-empiricist which considered comprehensive human understanding from the position of empiricism as his main aim in philosophy. He saw a guide for a practical activity in philosophy. Hume developed the doctrine about experience as a flow of impressions. The problem of existence and spirit in a relationship considered unsolvable. Ideas of doubt and skepticism are inherent his philosophy.
He says that one must act not only in accordance to duty, but for the sake of duty However, According to the Utilitarianism, Mill emphasizes that the actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness Immanuel Kant is the founder of the Kantian branch of ethics and morality, and his theories are personally my favorite theory of ethics so far. According to the utilitarianism, the best action is the one that maximizes utility. However, in Kant’s moral philosophy, people
According to Bass and Steidlmeier (1999), there are two types of transformational leadership defined, such as authentic transformational leadership and pseudo-transformational leadership. Following Burns (1978), Bass and Steidlmeier claim that authentic transformational leadership is based on ‘‘a moral foundation of legitimate values’’ (p. 184). To articulate the notion of legitimacy, Bass and Steidlmeier claim that this form of leadership is characterized by behavior that is ‘‘true to self and others’’ (p. 191). Accordingly, they state that ‘‘Authentic transformational leadership provides a more reasonable and realistic concept of self—a self that is connected to friends, family, and community whose welfare may be more important to oneself than one’s own’’ (pp.
Zhu Xi is a Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher, that believed that our moral mirror reflected our morality. The clean moral mirror reflects the underlying moral pattern. Xi believed that all things were brought together into unification by two universal aspects of reality: qi and li. Li is the principle of essence for our morality. The cause of immoral action is due to qi because qi obscures our perfect moral mirror.
Each one has expressed the importance of Aristotle’s view of leadership and opposing the way man has been conditioned to accept knowledge through science and reasoning. Levine and Boaks state that “the broadly Aristotelian account… demonstrates that leadership can and should be conceived of as a master virtue that, correctly understood, serves human flourishing” (2013). Keeping in mind that Aristotle’s Responsibility and the Primary Virtues of Character (Sachs, 2002) and Lewis’ The Abolition of Man (1944), in order to be a leader one must be ethically just, or what you will come to find as moral development. This is the concern of goodness and goodwill for your companions and leading because it is a beautiful, chosen virtue (Ethics, III, 1117a, 10). This courageous leadership translates to Lewis’ preservation of Man, not because you are conditioning man, but because you will make sacrifices in order for man to survive.
t Comparing the Dao in Confucianism to the Dao in Daoism, similarities or differences Dao in Confucianism represents the entire normative human order. The Dao in Daoism antedates Tian and acts as the basis of the natural order. While in Confucian Dao they hold the ideal political-social-ethical order ordained by tian for the people. Confucianism encourages their perfectibility through self-effort the teaching of ethics and good movement. The primacy of the Confucian Dao requires superior human beings, sages and men of virtue to exert their highest effort to actualized its ideal design.
The Daodejing, sometimes referred to simply as the Laozi after its author, is a classic Chinese text, fundamental for the study and practice of Daoism (Taoism). Daoism is heavily based on the concept of Yin Yang, a symbol which represents the two basic principles which govern the entire universe, i.e., the Yin and the Yang. The Yin and the Yang do not hold fixed definitions, but instead they are described as complete opposites which continuously transform into each other in order to keep the world in perfect equilibrium. Laozi explains this concept of absolute balance as he writes, “If you would shrink it,/You must first cause it to be expanded;/If you would weaken it,/You must first cause it to be strengthened... This is called the subtly illumined./The