Classical Civilizations

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Expansion and Integration • Classical Civilizations adjusting to expansion. • Confucius, Buddha, and Socrates all between 550 and 400 BCE. • Felt the need to articulate central values and ethics. • China was more centralized. • Mediterranean was more diverse. • India had very important religious values. • Integration- • How to command based on territories. • China had language and resettlements. • Rome used autonomy and tolerance. • India focused on the caste system. • Social- • What to do about the inequalities between men and women. • What to do about the inequalities between upper and lower class. • China had levels and the Confucian. • India had the caste system. • Rome used slavery. • Maintaining Cohesion- • China had respect for everybody in society. • India had the idea of being reincarnated into a better life. • Rome had the promise of being able to move up in ranks. • These were ways to give hope to the lower class. • This kept everyone happy and less angry. Sub-Headings: Notes: Beyond the Classical Civilization • Some civilizations were “border”, some completely independent. • Involved wider trade patterns. • Africa – • In the year 1000 BCE. • The kingdom of Kush was flourishing. • They had advanced writing and great use of iron. • Soon defeated by Axum. • Then later they were again defeated by Ethiopia. • Ethiopia being the longest undisturbed monarchy. • Japan- • Extensive agriculture. • Each tribe had its own god to

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