Classical Conditioning And Operant Conditioning

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Conditioning is crucial in order to survive in and adapt to this changing world. According to Morris and Maisto, conditioning is defined as the acquisition of specific patterns of behaviour in the presence of well- defined stimuli (Morris & Maisto, 2005). This means that the specific responses happened due to the specific stimulus. There are two types of conditioning which is classical conditioning and operant conditioning. For this discussion, we will focus on the application of operant conditioning in helping people with hearing and speech language problems and how clinicians apply this particular method in assessing them. Operant conditioning is proposed by Skinner and defined as behavioural training as a result of reinforcement and punishment. Operant conditioning provides a practical solution in overcoming people with behavioural problems as this method emphasise on producing a goal-directed behaviour which is constantly strengthen or weaken by reinforcements and punishments respectively. This method also involves behaviour that operate on the environment either socially or physically, in order to gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant. Reinforcement and punishment are two main things that are crucial in operant conditioning. Both reinforcement and punishment are divided into two types which is positive and negative. Reinforcements will strengthen the behaviour by rewarding them with something they desire while negative reinforcement on the other hand
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