The Spartans 1. Who was the leader of the Macedonians when they became powerful? Phillip II 2. What was the phalanx?
Michelle Lai 5402 Global Studies Period 1 10/26/15 Rise to Success The Spartans’ brutal authority over the Messenian helots made them revolt around 650 B.C. Being outnumbered and unprepared, their vulnerability in that situation caused them to focus on strengthening themselves for the rest of their lives. The Spartans became known for their powerful military in Greece from around 600 to 371 B.C. The necessity for strength and stability helped to develop Spartan society.
The same day that Thermopylae was won by the Persian army, their fleet was preparing for an attack on the greeks at sea. They battled head to head in the Euboea Channel. The Greeks were fighting so viciously that they destroyed many of their enemies ships and forced the Persians to withdraw. With the loss of Thermopylae by the Greeks, they viewed the north as no longer being attainable, and also decided to end any land-sea endeavors to the north. After the battle at Thermopylae the greeks experienced an influx of pride and boost of
King Phillip II of Macedonia was held as a hostage while he was young in the leading city of Greece at the time, Thebes. While being held hostage there Philip received both a military and diplomatic education. Philip returned to Macedonia in 364 BC and took the throne due to the deaths of his older brothers in 359 BC. Philip’s great military skills allowed him to use diplomacy to push back the Paionians and Thracians and also allowed him to dominate the three-thousand hoplites in 359 BC. In 338 BC the Battle of Chaeronea allowed King Philip to unify all of Greece, excluding Sparta.
Their shield played a big part also because it was made out of brass and reinforced with 3 inches of wood. The main idea of the phalanx formation was to be an impenetrable wall as a unit and it played a huge part in the Battle of Thermopylae, but in the end the Spartan Army lost because they were simply outnumbered by the Persian which is what the movie 300 with Gerard Butler is based on. During the training process they would have them constantly making the phalanx and having other soldiers trying to break
One important reason on why their military was strong, was its battle formation. The battle formation was called the phalanx. It was a tight group of soldiers where each held a shield, but the shields were interlocked with one another. This technique took a lot of time. In the end it allowed the Spartan soldiers to move in unison.
The start of the period known as "Classical Greece" starts at around 800 B.C.E. and ends around 400 B.C.E. Classical Greece tells tales of Athens against Sparta, the Peloponnesian War. But that is only some of the events, as the achievements are a feat to behold. New branches of mathematics, such as geometry established new theorems, columns were prominently used in buildings of importance, and the first Olympics were first held to honor the gods and celebrate human achievement. The contributions of classical Greece are seen in Western civilization in the continuation of the Olympics, in the realistic depiction of subjects in various forms of art, in the development of medical ethics, in the architectural use of columns in the Western building
They traveled across Hellespont, and confronted Persian and Greek forces at the river;they won. He went south and took over Sardes. His army faced opposition in the cities of Miletus, Mylasa and Halicarnassus. Halicarnassus stood long and waited for King Darius II, to collect a bigger army. King Darius wanted peace but Alex declined it.
Persian Impact on Society Today All of the ancient empires have impacted humans and society. They all have various inventions and were assiduous with their ideas. But, in my opinion, The Persian Empire has impacted our society and everyday life in many more ways than the others. They have engendered trade and new ideas and took those ideas and turned them into actions.
Isolating Chaeronea and Issus, as units of analysis, illustrates the importance of the Macedonian army equipment and weaponry. First, the sarissa is arguably the hero of Chaeronea due to the opportunity it provided Alexander’s cavalry unit as previously mentioned. In contrast, the sarissa was scantly mentioned at Issus to a point were some historians question its presence. Nonetheless, the second and third order effects of the sarissa, namely the increased armor of the cavalry units and hypaspists, were critical to Alexander’s victory over Darius and the Persians. Additionally, Alexander relied on his infantry in the middle of his battle line to provide a sturdy base for flanking maneuvers along the wings; a tactic similar to Philip’s at Chaeronea.
They carried a spear,shield,and a sword. The spartans wore a foot of fur standing up on their helmets to make them appear bigger to their enemy. Leonidas was brave and strong until the Battle of Trampathoy. King Leonidas sent all his soldiers back except for his 300 best soldiers.
Alexander took advantage of a weak spot and moved closer to Darius, and soon after, Bessus of Persia ordered a retreat for his men. As Alexander moved closer to the right, a weak spot had opened in the Macedonian center and Persian forces broke through and tried to overtake the Macedonian camp. [In the tales, the Persian forces were trying to rescue the Persian queen, but she had decided to stay due to her loyalty to Alexander.] Alexander ignored the Persian advances, and continued on his pursuit after Darius. But soon after, Alexander abandoned this pursuit to help Parmenion.
The more mass and weight behind your army, the more powerful it was. By having a substantial weight advantage over your adversary, an offensive gain was the natural result. Since the sarissa provided the Macedonian commanders with more offensive power than their opponents, Philip and Alexander were able to dictate the tempo and position of battle. As the offensive element, the tempo of battle is manipulated because the defending unit is put into a reactive stance instead of a proactive one. The reactive element cannot choose where and how to fight, but is limited to counterattacks in confined manners.
Ancient Greece was devided in two periods: Hellenistic and Classical Greece. The Hellenistic period covers the time of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the passing of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the rise of the Roman Empire as connoted by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the consequent triumph of Ptolemaic Egypt the next year. Classical Greece was a time of around 200 years ( 5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture. This Classical period saw the addition of quite a bit of cutting edge Greece by the Persian Empire and its resulting autonomy. Classical Greece affected the Roman Empire and on the establishments of western human advancement.
drawing symbol is a consonant-vowel combination. Linear B dates from the Mycenaean civilization. In the late 9th and early 8th century BC, the language found was based on the Phoenician syllabary, written from left to right and back again. This form of inscription is the closest to the modern language of today Athens was conquered in the fourth century B.C. by King Philip of Macedonia.