Classical Greece Research Paper

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The period between 500 B.C.E to 338 B.C.E is referred to as “Classical Greece” due to the many achievements taken place, as well as the blossoming democracy in Athens, under the leadership of Pericles. One of the major confrontations during this period was between the Greek states and the Persian Empire.

By the beginning of the 5th century BCE, Persia conquered Ionia, Thrace, and Macedonia while under the rule of Darius, and continued to expand his empire westward into mainland Europe.
The Ionian Greek cities, in southwestern Asia Minor had already fallen subject to the Persian Empire, however, in 499 an unsuccessful revolt by the Ionian cities led Darius to seek revenge by attacking the mainland Greeks in 490.

The Persians sailed across
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The total strength of the Persian army consisted of about 20,000-50,000 men. The Persians favored long range assaults using archers then following up with a cavalry charge. The Persian infantry carried a rectangular, lightweight shield, many times forming a defensive barrier, and were armed with long dagger or curved swords, a short spear, and a composite bow. The Persian forces also included a vast number of spear- bearers who wore a tunic, colorfully patterned trousers, boots, and a soft hood. The Greek army was led by Miltiades, who fought under Darius in the latter’s campaign in Scythia and also had military intelligence of Persian tactics. The total combined force of the Plataeans and Athenians is estimated between 10,000 and 20,000 men. Unlike the Persians, the Greeks favored heavily-armed hoplites, a common type of heavily armed foot soldier in ancient Greece, arranged in a phalanx, a densely paced formation, with each man carrying a heaving circular bronze shield and fighting at close quarters using long spears and swords. Even though the Persian strategy of attacking from afar, the lightness of the arrows would not penetrate the firm bronze shields of the hoplites. As a result, the Greek hoplites would have the advantage when fighting at close quarters, with longer spears, stronger armor, and firm formation of the phalanx, but were still greatly
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