Classical Theory Of Management

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Management is a complex process, where the aim is to achieve a common goal and the best efficiency through various means. A manager is someone who gets things done with the aid of people and other resources (Stewart, 1967). There are many different views on management, however not one view would be effective for all organizations and managers, so the aim of this essay is to critically discuss the classical theorist views of management in an attempt to explain and understand why different schools of management would be useful in different situations depending on internal and external factors that impact organizations. There are three main schools of management such as Classical Theorists, the Human Relations and the Empiricists. Henri Fayol…show more content…
He worked as a French mining engineer from 1841 to 1925 and his research was based on his own experience, so he developed 14 Principles of Management applicable to office administration. Fayol’s functions of management such as planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling are certainly useful and all managers up to today will carry out these functions and also his principles of management provided a language to communicate management theory and provided foundation for management training. However, Fayol’s views were criticized for being too idealistic and unrealistic of what managers really do on a daily basis. His principles of management were based on his own experience, so it is subjective and managers can have different perceptions about it. Moreover, Fayol ignores changes in external and internal factors of an organization, which has a direct impact on the ability of managers to carry out their functions (Hofstede, G.,1970). On the other side, there are advantages of adopting an autocratic management style like Fayol’s. For instance, if there are unforeseen changes in external business environment, which causing business to decline, the management would need to control and plan in advance to remain…show more content…
Accordingly, he demonstrated that traditional assumptions about manager’s role are not true and he supported his views with some research evidence including his own research, which shows that management is much more than just planning, commanding, coordinating and controlling as proposed by Fayol, so he called Fayol’s elements of management a “folklore”. For instance, from his studies Mintzberg (1975) shows that managers spent most of their time communicating with subordinates and outsiders rather than spending the time planning what they should do. But, when they have to plan in advance, they seem to do it implicitly in the context of daily actions, not in some abstract process that would take them a long time to complete. Although, Fayol (1945) argued that a manager has no regular duties to perform, Mintzberg (1975) found in studies that managers are involved in a number of duties including negotiations, ceremony, rituals and processing information that links organization with its environment. Therefore, this evidence has led to the development of three roles of a manager such as interpersonal roles, informational roles and decision-making roles. The interpersonal role is about how managers deal with people, informational roles relates to communication information and the last one means making decisions and solving
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