Systemic theorists take a position that can be called as relativist. They argue about the goals and frameworks about the strategy-making depending on the social context. This approach seems to be less pessimistic about the 3-2 -capacity of
Critical Theory and Systems Theory Critical theory is the method of inquiry in philosophy that radically questions existing social, political and economic systems. The aim is the total emancipation (empowerment) of each and every human being from all forms of oppression. Critical theorists tend to be philosophers who have been “hurt’’ by the system, or have seen other people ‘’hurt” by the system. Critical theorists believe that all forms of power are oppressive. Some modern critical theorists believe that it is the way we see things that is the cause of our power or powerlessness.
Classical realism and structural realism are both theories of International Relations, therefore huge differences are noticed in between those two. The main difference lies in the motivation to power, which is seen differently by both theories. Classical realism is concentrated in the desire of power- influence, control and dominance as basic to human nature. Whereas, structural realism is focused on the international system anarchic structure and how the great powers behave. Classical realists believe that power is related to human nature, thus their analysis of individuals and states is similar.
He divided managerial approaches into two categories; bureaucratic (Theory Y) and autocratic (Theory X). The Theory X managerial approach adopted a negative viewpoint. It assumed staff were lazy and disliked working, it assumed they need to be corrected, controlled and directed to achieve organisation goals. It also assumed that the employees seek only material rewards and security. The Theory Y managerial approach adopts a positive viewpoint.
Discuss why classical organizational theories are often referred to as the machine theories 25marks. The classical writers thought of the organization in terms of its purpose and formal structure. They placed emphasis on the planning of work, the technical requirements of the organization, principles of management, and the assumption of rational and logical behavior. The main idea of the classical perspectives of an organization is that organizations are similar to machines. Hence, if you have a well built and well managed machine, then you will have a very productive and effective organization.
Leadership is limited by the perspectives that we have which are usually informal theories that we know to be normal. Critical social theory is a tool to get a perspective for leadership theory and is a direct rejection of positivism. Research is said to be biased because those who engage in it, weather or not they are aware of it, act from a set of assumptions that influences their decisions. Critical social theories also assume structural inequality and challenge the taken for granted assumptions while holding people responsible for their own liberation and progressing toward social justice. There are three central themes of critical social theory that were chosen to enhance the understanding of leadership.
According to this theory, two elements should be done in managing an organization. The first element is structuring an organization into hierarchy. The second element is the creation and propagation of rules to govern an organization. One of the principles embedded in the Bureaucratic Management Theory is the proper selection and promotion of employees in an organization. The selection and promotion of workers should be based on equalizations like; skills, experience, and age and should not be influenced by personal relations and benefits.
In the beginning, it is essential to clearly define those bureaucratic management, behaviour management, and Japanese management technique. Bureaucratic management is a theory set forth by Max Weber, a German sociologist and political economist whose theory contained two essential elements, including structuring an organization into a hierarchy and having clearly defined rules to help govern an organization and its members. Bureaucratic management can be thought of as a formal system within an organization that is distinctly based on precisely defined hierarchical roles and levels to help maintain efficiency and effectiveness. Japanese management techniques include: in-house training of managers consensual and decentralized decision-making
The Neoclassical theory then appeared to solve the problem which is a human-oriented theory that emphasizes on the need of behavior, attitudes, time and drives of individuals (Kitana, 2016). However, this theory is time-consuming and inefficient and to face the high consumerism, competitors and digital technology in this century, born the new appliance of modern management theory that focused towards the complex employee’s view and applied the philosophical view (Dent & Bozeman, 2014). The intention of this essay is to sketch the pictures of how important the modern management theory specifically the system approach together with the importance of flexibility in today’s organizations by Samsung and several other organizations as an
Careers based on merit such as selection and promotion should be strictly based on technical qualification and not personal gains or relationship. They can all can be summarized as shown in the figure 2 below. Figure 2: The Ideal of Bureaucracy Management theory 2.3.1 Criticism This theory involves a lot of formalities and is most suited for government organization and not business one, there is too much formal writing and the decision-making process takes a lot of time. In business case their times one need to react due to certain circumstances and promotions takes a big delay as well since one has to be well equipped with the technical qualification no room for one to learn first after promotions. The theory has neglected commitment and dedication of employees and neglected the informal groups as they take a greater part in effective output due to an easy flow of