This assignment’s compilation serves the purpose of critically discussing the importance of primary school educators’ ability to understand theories of child development and their use within Intermediate phase education. Children perceive information in altered manners at particular stages of their development; this will be discussed further in this essay. Theories include Behaviourism, Constructivism and Cognitivism. It is imperative for educators to be aware of the theories that are applicable to the children they interact with, thus allowing them to provide information and activities for the learners in numerous manners to aid their development. The Behaviourists believed that our behaviour is shaped by the environment.
According to Pajares (1992), he stated that “teachers’ beliefs have a greater influence than the teachers’ knowledge on the way teachers plan their lessons, on the kinds of decisions they make, and on their general classroom practice (….) teachers can identify the level of students’ capacities… select and adjust their behavior and instructional choice accordingly.” From this perspective, he mentioned four main categories of educational beliefs, namely, “teacher efficacy” (affecting students’ performance); “epistemological beliefs” (regarding knowledge), “teachers’ or students’ performance” (refer to the different motivational spheres), and “self-efficacy” (relate to confidence when performing a task). In the same way, Marion Williams (1997) found that teachers’ beliefs were “far more influential than knowledge in determining how individuals organize and define tasks and problems (…) tend to be culturally bound, to be formed early in life and to be resistant to change” (p.243). Another definition of teachers’ beliefs are presented by Gallo & Renandya (2001), they indicated that “teachers’ beliefs are formed on the basis of teachers own schooling as young students while observing teachers who taught them”. To be more specific, teachers emerge as learners, and the way teachers perceive teaching rises
It is a way in which the teacher anticipates and responds to variety of student’s needs. Normally, teachers can modify the content, the process and due product to create a good teaching or learning environment. It is important for teachers to adopt a differentiated instruction in class because every student is different. We have a combination of personality interests, learning styles or background knowledge. Even though it is time consuming, but it is also very useful for our learners.
Although teachers routinely evaluate their students' learning, practice in effective classroom assessment is not yet part of most preserves education programs. Therefore, most teachers have had little preparation for engaging in meaningful, ongoing assessment of student learning. For each classroom assessment teachers create, they should ask, “Will this assessment enable students to demonstrate that they have acquired the skills and knowledge described in the relevant content standards?” Some typical challenges include: Creating or using assessments that align well with lesson or unit objectives and address established content standards; Creating valid assessments that allow students to do well because they are proficient in the objectives (learning outcomes) being assessed. Implementing assessment in reasonable intervals to effectively impact instruction; Offering students adequate participation in the assessment process, enabling them to internalize criteria on which they are being evaluated; and providing adequate opportunity if students, teachers and principals develop their competencies in learning, implementing and modelling the core practices of assessment for learning, and then we will improve learning for all and learn to be autonomous learners. If teachers and principals exercise instructional leadership through collaborative actions to improve the quality of teaching and learning, then we will improve the
Assessment is an important element of the classroom procedure. Birenbaum (1996) claimed that assessment not only serve as feedback on the learners’ success or failure in the learning process, but also it provides valuable insight into the effectiveness of the teaching practice and indicates the areas that need further development and improvement. Therefore, the problem is that how a teacher can assess the activities and performances of the learners during instruction by using some tests or quizzes. Is it possible to assess the ongoing activities of the students with these forms of assessment? How is it possible to evaluate the students' activities in a formative way by using some tests or quizzes?
Even in activity-based subjects when learners are working activities in a group, group discussion or exploration of the concepts are not promoted. This tends to neglect critical thinking and unifying concepts essential to authentic science literacy and appreciation ( Yore 2001). This teacher-centered approach of teaching also assumes that all learners have a comparable basic level of background knowledge in the subject matter and are able to absorb the material at the same pace (Lors,
The assessment interview is very similar to a regular job interview but focuses more directly on your personality. (Now, 2005) 2. Types of Formative Assessment • Checklist: A checklist contains a list of different features of a lesson, which you complete while observing a lesson. (Wajnryb, 1992) • Narrative Summary: A narrative summary is written a summary of the lesson that tries to capture the main things that happened during it, such as how the lesson opened, the sequence of activities that occurred, how the teacher introduced each activity and so on. (Bailey, 2006) Summative Assessments are given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know.
It is very necessary on the part of the teacher to perform effectively in order to bring out the desired outcomes of the learners and this requires effective and appropriate use of teaching skills in classroom. Teachers are asked not only to present information, but to help students grow in creativity, curiosity, social adjustment, problem solving, and responsibility; teachers are also asked to help students develop a good attitude toward classmates and their school. The accomplishment of these goals has a greater chance if teachers use effective teaching competencies. In the fast changing world of the early 21st century, secondary education is also changing; the role of teachers will also change. New social challenges and demands towards education and teachers, change schools into institutions with modern aims and social contracts.
ASSESSMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE Assessment Assessment can be defined as the systematic collection of information about student learning, using the time, knowledge, expertise, and resources available, in order to inform decision about how to improve learning. Term assessment is used to describe the tests,surveys and exams. It aims at the continuing improvement of student development. The purpose of assessment is to provide information on student achievement and progress and set the direction for ongoing teaching and learning. Importance of assessment in teaching learning process Assessment is a key component of learning because it helps students learn.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM Gandhi Babu Shanampoodi Asst. Professor Of English, Andhra Loyola Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh, India ABSTRACT Assessment of performance is an integral part of any process of learning and teaching. This paper attempts to look at the role and importance of assessment and the advantages of evaluation. The major problem of teaching English language, for teachers, has been assessing and evaluating students during their courses of study and their classroom achievements towards the end of the course. In spite of employing highly useful evaluation parameters such as filling blanks, spotting the error, multiple choice test, essay writing test and reading comprehension, teachers have not been fully successful in the classroom to meet the objectives of teaching and learning.