L2 Learning

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In general, findings in the present study lent further support to the evidence that PM ability played a vital role in adults' successful L2 learning. L2 classroom experience might be enriched and L2 learning might be improved by applying numerous pedagogical practices that are probable to exercise the phonological subcomponent of WM or avoid it by employing more long-term lexical knowledge.
Research findings suggested three types of interventions that might help to develop PM: activities to improve phonological loop function, activities to improve attention and to increase processing capacity, and also provide supports for remembering such as visual aids, songs, use of context. Studies on children with learning disabilities have consistently
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And if the PM is weak, then learning can be particularly enhanced by choosing material which puts less load on PM. Plain language is an example of helpful device that decrease the problem on linguistic PM. The functioning of PM can be facilitated by clear, well explained and structurally short language. It decreases the problem of new information by utilizing short sentences and familiar vocabulary and makes it understanding for the learners to relate new information into the old one. There are evidence that the effect of reading on memory is also significant for example, reading, phonics, spelling and writing may improve phonological awareness for sounds in words and more accurate representations in the phonological loop ; knowledge and storage of printed words may aide storage and retrieval of spoken words ; supported reading and reading aloud may help memory for longer sequences of information ; and finally speech clarity is better when reading aloud – may help storage of phonological patterns for words in LTM (e.g., Service et al. 2002) . On the other hand, activation of processing during reading is also a good means to improve reading comprehension and the organization of new information in a way optimal to reading. It is very important to trigger the involvement of the LTM during a reading event .However, many studies have revealed uncertainties about the probabilities to train and revive PM (e.g., Maridaki-Kassotaki 2002). The performance of memory is conceptual and strongly related to handling of activity. So; generally, it is advisable to understand that development of memory demands conceptual thinking and a capacity to guide one’s own psychological

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