The teaching methods based on constructivist approach are very effective to help students understand, recall and apply the essential information, concepts and skills. They are used to make lessons interesing, activate students ' prior knowledge, help to develop and organise information and promote questioning. Slavin( 1994,p. 237-239) discusses the important concepts of this approach as mentioned below: Advance organisers: general statements given before instruction that links new information to existing knowledge to help students process new information by activating background knowledge, suggesting relevance and encouraging accommodation; Analogies: highlighting the similarities between things that are otherwise unlike, to help students learn new information by relating it to concepts they already have; and Elaboration: the process of reflection on the new material in a way that connects it with existing
Thus, the concept of learning as a social process and the constructivist approach would provide students with different points of view on a given topic that would make it easy for them to understand difficult topics. The new approach would help educators develop a curriculum that would ensure all the stakeholders benefit from the learning
But the study also makes it clear that to guarantee kids’ healthy development, both parents should develop an authoritative style at home, communicate, and build a good relationship with their own children, especially in an eastern country with collective society like India, where they emphasize family integrity and unity. In the same context study supporting the authoritative parental style a study was conducted in Sweden regarding adolescent achievement strategies and parental style. The study revealed that because authoritative parents encourage their young child to be independent, responsible and aware, this child when become adolescent, he will be able to choose and
It encourages learners to build their own knowledge in order to gain understanding that they may not receive when actively listening in class or reading from a prescribed textbook. “Explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook” (Roy, 2017). The main theorists that propose Constructivism are John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb. Constructivism encourages learners to explore the world around in efforts to gain knowledge on particular subjects, thus forming what is known as Discovery Learning in opposition of the children learning passively. An example of a Constructivist activity that may be executed in the classroom is experimentation.
Theoretical Framework This study was anchored on the Constructivist Theory. Constructivism is defined by Cunanan-Cruz (2002) as an educational theory whereby learners construct their own knowledge by a natural ability to think, by learning from the environment, or by combination of both natural ability and environmental influences, where the result is an autonomous, intellectual learner. Constructivism influences instructional theory by encouraging discovery, hands-on, experiential, collaborative, project-based, and task-based learning. It has roots in cognitive psychology and biology and is an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created while exploring the world. Exemplars of constructivist theory may be found in the works of John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb.
Tony (2014), explained that constructivism learning theory that associate learning with creating connotation from experience. It is known as learner centered. Learning is more having an important effect to students when they are capable to interact with problem or concept. It can help engage and encourage students by making them take or more active role in the learning process. Constructivism utilizes interactive teaching strategies to create important context that facilitate students to build knowledge based on their experience.
Constructivism theory encourages learners to make new concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. In this sense, the learner selects and transforms information, assembles hypotheses, and formulates decisions relying on a cognitive structure. Cognitive configuration provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given" (Culatta, 2015). Students in this case ascertain, and assess what they know. They are active creators of their own knowledge.
In other words, most researches firmly believe that knowledge is constructed, but some (e.g. main stream instructional designers) do not adopt an instructional design that is labelled "constructivist". Typically, a constructivist teaching strategy is based on the belief that students learn best when they gain knowledge through exploration and active learning. Hands-on materials are used instead of textbooks, and students are encouraged to think and explain their reasoning instead of memorizing and reciting facts. Education is centered on themes and concepts and the connections between them, rather than isolated information.
Constructivism in classroom application In constructivism, learning should be practical. According to constructivists, learners need to practice the things they learn for the learning process to be meaningful. Students construct their own knowledge through interaction. Teacher’s role is to provide help for pupil s to apply existing skills to acquire new knowledge. The main activity in a constructivist classroom is solving problems.
Expressive style refers to the emotional relationship created by the lecturer to the student or the class as a whole, including warmth, authority, sympathy, trust and some emotional aspects shown by the lecturer. The interpersonal relationships between lecturers and students is involved in this teaching style and related with attitudes toward learning. Expressive teaching style works to control the students, managing classroom activities as well as negative or positive feelings toward teaching. Other than that, this teaching style is also associated with a sense of confidence in students and understands the purpose of education in general. Commonly, lecturers who practice this style will serve as a helpful mentor and could tolerate students.