Clean Water Case Study

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Problem 1
Municipalities are tasked with the responsibility to provide clean water to their resident population at all costs. Impure water lacks appeal from people who would want to drink it. They kill disease causing pathogens, remove residual deposits in the water and prevent subsequent growth of potentially devastating microorganisms or residue. This way pathogens as well as contamination coming from the pipes or that could come in due to a burst pipe are neutralized and consumers are assured of safe drinking water. Some of the methods of disinfection include:
a) Chlorination with gas
This is achieved by releasing chlorine gas from a pressurized cylinder with pressure less than the atmospheric pressure which is then injected in the water
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The iron and manganese are simply replaced by the highly reactive sodium metal thus they are collected as residue at the softeners bed through regeneration and backwashing procedures. If the raw water is already exposed to air and oxidized then filtration procedures can be followed to separate the filtrate from the metals.
b) Polyphosphate Addition
This is usually only used to remove iron of concentration less than two milliliters per liter. The phosphate is pumped into water though usually under trial and error. The phosphate surrounds the iron but it is not actually removed. This inhibits the occurrence properties of iron in the water from manifestation only that the water still remains with the metallic taste. Too much phosphate causes a slippery feeling in the water which could cause diarrhea. This method also requires that the water should not be heated as it would release the iron.
c) Oxidizing Filters
This method removes both iron and manganese by oxidizing and filtering them.A filter made of manganese treated greensand is treated with potassium permanganate forming a coat that oxidizes dissolved iron and manganese.The residue is then filtered out of the water. This method can be used to treat raw water containing both dissolved and oxidized iron and
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They are found in smaller numbers in waste water and pose as parasitic organisms to obtain energy and reproduce from the bacteria. Bacteriophage is a phage type of virus common in occurrence in waste water and attacks bacteria for food. This way they help control the number of bacteria in the ecology thus balancing the system. Two other examples of viruses of type enteroviruses present in sewage water treatment include Hepatitis A and Polio Myelitis. Their inability to die from conventional chlorination procedures make them to be of special concern in wastewater

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