In the white matter area of the medulla oblongata contains ascending and descending nerve tracks which cross the brain and spinal cord. The protrusions in the white matter forms the pyramids with corticospinal nerve connect the cerebrum with spinal cord which controls the movement of voluntary muscles. These nerve tracks cross the left side to the right side of the body. The medulla regulates the force and heart rate through the cardiovascular system and medullary rhythmic area of respiratory center controls the respiratory processes. Other functions are controlling reflexes for vomiting, swallowing, sneezing and coughing and hiccupping.
Digestive system – *The digestive system is composed of the mouth cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and glands. *The mouth cavity is bounded by the upper and lower jaws. *The tongue islong, slender and deeply forked. It has a muscular sheath into which it may retract. The tongue is sensitive and is used as tactile organ.
The structure of intertebral disc is complex. Nucleus pulposus has a well organized matrix which is laid down by relatively few cells. Nucleus pulposus is a gelatinous structure present in the centre and is contained in the periphery by annulus which is collagenous and cartilaginous, and two cartilaginous endplates cephalad and caudad. Collagen fibers from annulus continue and attach to the surrounding tissues, tying into the vertebral body along its rim, cartilaginous endplates superiorly and inferiorly and anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Bony endplate and cartilaginous endplates were connected by calcified cartilage.
rectus abdominis) is a thin strap-like muscle, enclosed between two sheets of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique, and separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the linea alba. The muscle originates from the lateral border of the sternum, including the xiphoid process; also the ventral surfaces of the 1st to 7th costal cartilages. Its insertion lies at the anterior end of the pubic symphysis (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the transverse abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) which originates from 7 posterior ribs, the middle layer of the lumbar fascia, and the inguinal ligament. It inserts in the linea alba, by an aponeurosis that fuses with the weakly developed dorsal leaf of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique to form the dorsal wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis.
The acetabular cavity consists of the peripheral articular lunate surface and the non-articular acetabular fossa in the center. The articular surface is enlarged by a fibrocartilaginous articular labrum. The lunate surface is crescentic and medially is has the acetabular notch through which the intrascapular ligament of the femoral head emerge and joins the femoral head to the acetabular fossa.
The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum. The uncinate process, which forms the anterior and medial limitation of the hiatus semilunaris and the ethmoidal infundibulum (respectively), is a thin, crescent shaped, bony leaflet that emerges from the ethmoidal labrynth
Respiratory sounds can also define as breath sounds or lung sounds. It is generated through the turbulence of airflow in our respiratory tract. The air breath in and out are transmitted through air, liquid and solid and to the chest wall. Each properties of substance that the air attenuated lead to different degree and intensity of breath sounds (Jones, 1995a). Breath sounds can divided into three type, normal, abnormal and diminished (Alexandra Hough, 2001).
The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally. Distally, the bones are connected by a wrist capsule, radio-ulnar stabilizing ligaments (dorsal and volar) and a fibrocartilage articular disk (triangular fibrocartilage compex, TFCC) (). There is an interosseus membrane
The functions of connective tissues are giving the structural framework of the human body, transport fluids and dissolve materials, protect important and delicate organs and store energy. (Frederic H. Martini, William C.Ober, Judi L.Nath, Edwin
The pons are a part of the metencephalon in the hindbrain. The medulla oblongata is located between the pons and spinal cord. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The midbrain is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement. The pons are involved in motor control and sensory analysis.
Those impulses are then moved to the brain bythe auditory nerve. Those impulses are turned into sound in the brain. 5. Name and describe the major structures of the middle ear. The middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes.
The pharynx is also part of the respiratory system and it is known as the throat in simpler words. It is a tube that leads to the stomach and lungs. The larynx has three main divisions the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is where air passses, oropharynx is where food and air pass through, and lastly the laryngopharynx is also where the air and food pass through. Another part of the respiratory system is the larynx which is also known as the voice box.