In Africa, where adaptive capacity to the change is constrained by several factors like poverty, corruption and institutional weakness, the impact is likely to amplify (IPCC, 1998). Ethiopia is one of the vulnerable countries in Africa by the impact of climate change and variability (Kirsty and Million, 2011). Droughts and floods have been frequently experiencing in the country due to climate change and variability which exacerbated susceptible livelihoods of agrarian community (IGAD-ICPAC, 2007). According to the NMA (2008), annual temperature has increased by about 0.20C every decade during the last 50 years in Ethiopia. Unfavorable shifts in rainfall belts are also causing series of droughts, which nowadays recur every two years especially in the lowlands of Ethiopia.
With the combination of those actions causes an upward surge on oil prices which escalated from $14 per barrel of the beginning of 1979 to more than $35 per barrel in 1981. The reasons for that influxes of prices could be the result of the revolution and the war between the Iraq- Iran which caused crude oil prices to triple. The higher oil prices depressed countries for example the United States whose petroleum consumption was reduced and the energy conservation and fuel switching was encouraged. This movement had a huge influence on U. S petroleum demand from 1978 to 1983 fell from 18.8 to 15.2 million barrels per day which was the lowest level since 1971.
Furthermore, Thailand is one of the dominant agricultural countries, the largest exporter of rice. It is estimated that agriculture employs up to 49% of the population and contributes 10% of GDP. But when the unstable temperature occured due to the climate change, it can become a threat towards human because it can caused all the activity to stop and thus lead to the loss of profit. For example, during the period 1991-2000, damage to agricultural areas caused by drought, floods and storms cost up to fifty billion Thai Baht. During 2004-2005, the industrial estates of the eastern seaboard experienced severe shortage of water due to unprecedented prolonged
Among the different abiotic stresses, heat, drought, submergence, and salinity are the major factors affecting rice ecosystem and are responsible for significant annual economic losses to rice producers. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) report Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation forecasts that by 2050 rice prices will increase between 32 and 37% as a result of climate change. They also show that rice productivity will reduce by 14% in South Asia, 10% in East Asia and the Pacific, and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa (IFPRI,
Following the industrial revolution, it took industrialized countries more than 200 years to establish a living standard under which an environmental movement could emerge. Furthermore, the gap worldwide between the rich and the poor is widening (OECD, 2015). As a reaction, the growing population from developing countries understandably demands equitable living conditions compared to citizens in Europe or the United States. However, establishing higher standards of living is opposed to concentrating efforts on reducing emissions. As a result there will be decades of ever-increasing GHGs globally, currently primarily caused by developed countries and by developing countries in the
Longer and more extreme warmth waves will bring about warmth related wounds. Freshwater accessibility worldwide is waning because of higher dissipation rates, which implies that the planet is losing a crucial asset. By the center of the 21st century, water supplies in officially dry districts are assessed to diminish by 10 to 30 percent. Sustenance supplies are likewise at danger, as it is harder to develop crops in ecological conditions modified by environmental change. As indicated by the EPA, American corn creation could be diminished by 10 to 30 percent if the temperature rises 3.6 degrees
Increasing of global temperature will affect the agriculture production numerously. For example, as the temperature increases by 5.2 degree centigrade, crops and livestock production will reduce by four percent based on 1990 economic conditions. Climate change is acting as a brake. We need yields to grow to meet growing demand, but already climate change is slowing those yields," Suzanne (March, 2014) (From where this you got)?? Moreover, thrilling weather events damage the developed flowers that are crucial for the crop.
In 2007, extremely heavy rainfall caused floods across South Asia and over twenty million people were affected by the floods as well as 250 people were killed. Scientist believe that it is global warming that is causing more rainfall because warmer air can hold more moisture, which leads to more precipitation. In contrast to areas around the world that are getting more floods, other areas are receiving much less rainfall than before. Since the 1970, droughts have become longer and more extreme. Droughts means that there will be less water supply for drinking, watering crops, and for generating hydropower with dams.
According to the United Nations ‘Food and Agriculture Organization’, 18 million acres of forest, which is roughly the size of Panama, are lost each year. The overabundance of chemical fertilizers in crop lands is yet another cause of global warming. Towards the end of the 1900s, the use of chemical fertilizers had grown drastically. The increased usage of nitrogen rich fertilizers has negative effects on the heat incarceration of the crop land. Nitrogen oxide has 300 times heat trapping potential per unit of volume.
The observed global average of 0.65∘C over the past five decades and extreme rainfall events have increased in frequency (DEA, 2013). As result of the socioeconomic and the environmental background, South Africa is extremely vulnerable and exposed to the impacts of climate change. It is the poor communities that will be affected severely by climate variability, including the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. In terms of water availability, South Africa is regarded as the water-stressed country with a projected future of drying trends and weather variability coupled by cycles of droughts and abrupt excessive rains. (DEA, 2011) In South Africa, climate change is projected to cause increased precipitation in areas that receive orographic rainfall in the north east and the south eastern coastal areas.