Ketamine should be used with caution because of potential interaction between levodopa and ketamine’s sympathomimetic activity. Butryophenones( eg:-droperidol) and phenothiazines , which block dopamine receptors and exacerbate PD should be avoided. Ondansettron appears safe in preventing and treatment of emesis in patients with PD and is also used in treatment of psychosis induced by long term levodopa therapy. Opioids are more succeptible to produce muscle rigidity in patients with PD. Meperidine should be avoided in a patient taking monoamine oxidase inhibitor becaouse of the potential to produce stupor, rigidity, agitation and hyperthermia.
Comparative Study of Lorazepam and Alprazolam as Premedication For Patient Posted For Orthopaedic Surgery. Introduction The main aim of premedication is to allay anxiety, block autonomic reflexes, produce amnesia, facilitate induction of anaesthesia, reduce stress response to anaesthesia and provide analgesia, if necessary. Anxiety of surgery is associated with various neuroendocrine changes1 like elevation of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone in serum. For anxiolysis and lessen the psychological effects of hospital experiences, prior to anaesthesia, premedication was administered.2 Most commonly, non parenteral route is preferred for initiation of sedation and premedication administration in the clinical
Analgesics are required to manage acute or chronic pain. The nociceptive pains are managed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Normally pain produced during any injury in road accidents, rail accidents, tsunami, flood, terrorism and war are acute severe pain and an analgesic is required to manage them .The preferred analgesic is an opioid. Morphine, a proto type of opioid has various adverse effects like physical dependence, constipation, vomiting, respiratory depression. Among the opioids, buprenorphine is used for the development of an analgesic autoinjector which has the advantage among other opioids like better pharmacological effect, lesser physical dependence and ceiling effect of respiratory depression (Rosenblum et al,2008)
 Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy. [14, 33] The reduction in intestinal motility and transit time with loperamide could improve the efficiency of the physiological mechanism and is effective in reducing high-output ileostomy. This will hasten the absorption of the medication before intestinal motility is initiated by the ingestion of food.
Microcytic anemias Iron deficiency is the most common cause of microcytic anemia. The management of iron-deficiency consists in iron supplementation (oral or parenteral) based on age and serum iron values. The most common oral iron given is ferrous sulfate in doses from 200-325 mg, twice or three times a day. Usually a follow-up visit is necessary every 2 to 4 months. The patient should continue therapy for four to six months after hemoglobin has normalized.
Prolongs levodopa action Useful in wearing off events and motor fluctuations Increases t1/2 of levodopa Increases the availability of levodopa in CNS Useful in advanced cases of Parkinson’s disease Useful in on-off phenomenon Mechanism Intracerebral degradation of dopamine is retarded by inhibition of MAO-B Inhibits metabolism of levodopa by COMT Drug Name MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) inhibitors Selegiline Rasagiline COMT (Catecholamine o-methyl transferse) inhibitors Entacapone, Tolcapone Sr No 5. 6. Disadvantages Dizziness, lethargy, anticholinergic effects, and sleep disturbance, Nausea and vomiting Anticholinergic side effects Sedation and mental confusion in elderly more pronounced Advantages Modest anti Parkinsonian effect Can be used as short course with levodopa for motor fluctuations Less side effects compared to
EMG study: detects whether a nerve is impinged or not Treatment Medical management • OTC drugs: medicines that are safe to be take without prescription, if the pain is shooting/excruciating For example: ibuprofen, naproxen, etc • Narcotics drugs: to produce analgesic effect. Example: oxcodone • Nerve pain medication: pain relievers and anti depressants, to reduce nerve pain. Example: gabapentin, pregabalin, tradamol,
Exacerbations could either be classified as mild or severe. Severe exacerbations are usually treated with high-dose corticosteroids, which aid in reducing inflammation. Whereas in a rehabilitation program the primary focal point is on improving or maintaining the patients ability to perform effectively at any stage of the disease (National Multiple Sclerosis Society [APA],
Retrieved from acandiana addiction center: http://www.acadianaaddiction.com/prescription-drugs/oxycontin Benefits Of Oxycodone. (n.d.). Retrieved from Benefits Of everything that matters: http://benefitof.net/benefits-of-oxycodone/ OxyContin: Pain Relief vs. Abuse. (n.d.).
TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER TWO VIAGRA EFFECTS AND SIDE EFFECTS CHAPTER THREE THE INTERACTIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS OF VIAGRA CHAPTER FOUR DOSAGE INFORMATION INCLUDING OVER-DOSAGE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Definition of Male Viagra (Sildenafil): This is a pill that is effectively used for treating erectile issues or dysfunction as well as in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. And it is quite effective in treating impotence or weak erection. This pill works by relaxing the muscles found in blood vessel walls, which is in the genital area or region of a male adult. And this pill proves to be very potent in treating such dysfunction issues or problems. Originally, Viagra was made to assist in lowering
Drug is important in human life as it helps relieved pain and act for cure and treatment (Mandal, 2013) like opioid. Chronic and severe pain used opioid as pain management. The use of opioids is associated with rewarding effect that typical of drugs have considerable abuse liability thus patients who are prescribed with opioids might have difficulty to stop the use of prescription opioids even though it is not abuse or misuse of opioids (Crofford, 2010). Currently, pain medication for chronic and severe pain like cancer and chronic musculoskeletal pain use morphine as its pain management. Morphine is an example of opioid which shows to give positive effects by reducing pain.
Dimethyl Fumarate (Tecfidera) belongs to a class of drugs called Nrf2 activators and may work by decreasing inflammation thus preventing nerve damage. Tecfidera may cause serious side effects, including allergic reactions and has been implicated in the death of one patient who developed Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The most common side effects of Tecfidera include flushing and stomach
Pharmacologic treatments for diastolic heart failure and systolic heart failure are similar in the fact they both should include an ACEI, an ARB, beta blocker, and a diuretic. The following dosages and instructions are available for both heart failures. For ACEI, the treatment should be initiated at low dosages and slowly titrated upward if the patient tolerates them. Captopril should be taken by mouth on an empty stomach (at least 1 hour before meals) usually two to three times a day starting at 6.25 mg initially then increasing to 50 mg three times a day. If a patient is unable to tolerate an ACEI, an ARB would be beneficial because they do not create the same reaction.