Closed Innovation Model

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There are two approaches to innovation as discovered in relevant literature. These are;
- Closed Innovation (Traditional)
- Open Innovation
2.1 Closed Innovation: The conventional model for innovation is commonly referred to as a “Closed Innovation model”. The closed innovation model focuses on the innovation of products and processes with the use of internal resources and complete control of all assets in the production process, including Intellectual property (PRESANS, 2009). This model was largely used in the period between World War II and the 1980’s where corporate espionage and sensitivity of competition was at an all-time high (PRESANS, 2009).

Fig 2.1 Closed Innovation Source: (Chesbrough, et al., 2006)

The above diagram explains
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Source: (Shui & Liu, 2012)

Enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) has become not only a technological tool but an essential management aid employed by most organisations globally. ERP systems have displayed their capability to foster business process innovation thus leading Srivardhana & Pawlowski (2007) to propose a conceptual model adapted from Zahra & George (2002) which highlights the relationship between ERP systems and innovation from social, external and internal knowledge sources.

Fig 2.5.3 Conceptual ERP and Social innovation model Source: (Srivardhana & Pawlowski, 2007)

2.6 Health Sector Innovation: The health sector globally and more specifically in the UK is a multi-billion pound industry with lots of competition and a desperate need for innovation. Ernst & Young (n.d.) reports the importance of a new approach if the National Health Service (NHS) England, is going to achieve its target of a £20 billion efficiency by 2015. Innovation is thus essential and necessary for the continuous growth of this public
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In a research carried out by 5 dental practices, it was discovered that the process of reviewing patients health records were fragmented and not centralised thus consuming time. Using a Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and an analysis of the EDR system, navigation patterns were drawn from the process flow and the design limitations of the system as well as the navigational process flow could thus be adjusted using cognitive knowledge from the participants of the exercise (Thyvalikakath, et al.,

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