Escherichia coli (E. coli) is normally found in living intestine of humans and animals. A bacterium that are harmless and is important to the health of the human’s intestinal tract. The intestinal tract is part of the digestive system; having varies of sizes of intestine that transport the food in order to absorb the nutrients and expel the waste. However, some E. coli are pathogenic, causing illness to the host such as diarrhea or harm the outside of the intestinal tract. The host can be effected by the consumption of contaminated water or food, or having contact with the animals or people.
Clostridum difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that was identified in 1987 to be responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea.1 C.difficile’s pathogenicity is due to toxin production. Two toxins have been well described as the main virulence factors: enterotoxin (toxin A) and cytotoxin (toxin B).2,3,4 Another strain of C. difficile that does not express toxin A or B but expresses a binary toxin that has increasing evidence of pathogenicity.2,3 C. difficile acquisition and gut flora disruption must both occur to acquire CDI. The largest risk factor for CDI is broad-spectrum antibiotic usage due its disruption of the colonic flora. Other risk factors for infection include older age, recent hospitalization, PPI therapy, chemotherapy,
Staphylococcus Aureus belongs to the extremely common bacteria of microflora of the skin and mucous membranes of the humans. These pathogens cause many infections, including superficial and deep purulent infections, poisoning, urinary tract infection etc. In the US, staphylococcus bacteria are supposed to be the leading cause of sepsis, postoperative wound and prosthesis infections. In addition, staphylococcus belongs to one of the leading causes of bacterial food poisoning. Staphylococcus Aureus is one of the most dangerous human pathogen. It is highly virulent with the high rate of resistance to the treatment and antimicrobial infectious agents. The mentioned above proves that the Epidemiology of Staph. Auerus as foodborne pathogen requires
This time with stomach pains, diarrhea, and bloating. Viewing the bacteria in their gut during week 7, there is a new type of bacteria called C. difficile. This bacteria can cause deadly infections. It was developed in this persons gut becuase of all the empty space. It invaded it's way into their gut and rapidly started to multiply.
TYPE OF DISEASE OR INFECTION Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important organisms that cause community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections as well as life-threatening nosocomial infections. S. aureus affects the bloodstream, skin, soft tissues and lower respiratory tracts. S. aureus is the leading cause of necrotizing pneumonia, bacteremia, infective endocarditis, osteoarticular, skin, soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, device-related and various surgical wound infections. The infections of skin and soft tissue could be boils, carbuncles, impetigo and cellulitis. If the infections get serious, manifestations could be ventilator‑associated necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, endocarditis and sepsis.
According to Joseph Castro a contributor from the website Live Science,” Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, is a strain of staph bacteria that is resistant to the antibiotics normally used to treat such infections” (Castro 2013). Castro explains how in 1940 doctors started treating MRSA with penicillin. After penicillin doctors started using methicillin because penicillin helped the microbes evolve with resistance to penicillin. Then after penicillin methicillin became the new treatment for
The development of resistance to all kinds of antibiotics in the sensitive bacterial pathogens is a major challenge to infectious disease medicine. The astonishing effects of antibiotics and origin of the genes associated with resistance has been a long mystery. There is growing evidence that the genes that make up this environmental resistome have the potential to be transformed to pathogens and indeed there is some evidence that clinically relevant resistance genes have originated in environmental microbes. Understanding the extent of environmental resistome and its mobilization into pathogenic bacteria is essential for the management and discovery of antibiotics.
Introduction Clostridium Botulinum is the bacteria from which Botox is derived from. It can be found in its inactive form in the natural environment, in things such as the forest, cultivated soils and the sediment of lakes and streams, also in the intestinal tracts of mammals and fish. Naturally occurring forms of this bacteria and spores are normally harmless. Problems only arise when the spores transform into vegetative cells and the cell population increases to the point where the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum begin producing the botulinum toxin, a deadly neurotoxin responsible for botulism.1 Botulinum A toxin is one of seven serotypes (A-G), these toxins are responsible for four recognised types of diseases including infant botulism, wound botulism and food-borne and adult intestinal colonization.2, 3
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the organism that was identified based on the tests that I had conducted. The tests that I used to identify this organism were the coagulase test and the catalase test. My bacterium was beta hemolytic as well. First, a gram stain had to be done to determine whether the organism was a gram positive organism or a gram negative organism. This determined which set of tests that had to be done. My bacterium turned out to be gram positive. When conducting these tests, I only had to do the coagulase test and the catalase test because when doing the catalase test, the reaction was that it had bubbled. If it did not bubble, or have a positive reaction, then I would not have had to do the coagulase test. Also, since my bacterium caused a positive catalase test, I only had to do the coagulase test and no other tests. This is because with staphylococcus organisms, these are the only tests
Antibiotics - one of the finest inventions of the XX century in the field of medicine. Modern people do not always realize that, no matter how much they owe it to the therapeutic formulations. Mankind in general very quickly gets used to the amazing achievements of the science, and sometimes need to make some effort to imagine life as it was, for example, before the invention of TV, radio or engine. As quickly came into our lives a huge family of a variety of antibiotics, the first of which was penicillin. Today, it seems surprising that in the 30-ies of XX century, each year tens of thousands of people have died of dysentery that pneumonia in many cases ended in deaths that sepsis was a real scourge
Antibiotics selectively target bacteria for eradication as opposed to the host’s cells by acting on things that are particular to bacteria. A number of bacteria produce peptidoglycan that makes up their cell walls. Human cells don’t produce nor need this this, so antibiotics that target peptidoglycan destroy the bacteria without harming good cells. Metabolic pathways are another route in which bacteria are damaged without the host cells. Sulfonamides prohibit bacteria from producing folic acid which is critical to the survival of cells.
Most antibiotics including penicillin attack the cell wall of the bacteria that prevents them from synthesizing peptidoglycan which is a molecule that provides the bacteria strength to survive in the human body. However, there are multiple ways on how an antibiotic affects the peptidoglycan. For example is vancomycin, it affects the peptidoglycan but not in same manner as penicillin. A different class of antibiotics called quinolones targets DNA gyrase which unwinds DNA for replication. Since DNA can unwind because of the removal of the enzymes that do that bacteria can’t multiply.
The two most potent classes of antibiotic are the macrolides (azithromycin), and the quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, trovofloxacin). Other agents that have been shown to be effective include tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Erythromycin, the former antibiotic of choice, has been replaced by more potent and less toxic antibiotics. There are three major classes of antibiotics that are effective in treating legionellosis. These include the fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin (Levaquin), and moxifloxacin (Avelox), the macrolides such as erythromycin, azithromyocin (Zithromax), and clarithromycin (Biaxin), and the tetracyclines including doxycycline (Vibramycin).
Data from in vitro study has demonstrated that relebactam /imipenem combination is synergistic and shows considerably reduced MIC in imipenem-resistant isolates of KPC-producing K.pneumoniae and Pseudomonas strain (81-83). In a study that was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of relebactam-imipenem combination, relebactam restored 97% susceptibility of imipenem against KPC-producer K.pneumoniae isolates(84). Although MBLs(IMP, NDM, VIM) are not susceptible to relebactam /imipenem, OXA-48 producing Enterobacteriacae are weakly affected by this combination(70, 85). Due to greater potency of imipenem relative to cephalosporins, relebactam /imipenem combination is a better choice than ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftaroline-avibactam