Clostridia Difficulee Research Paper

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Clostridia difficule (C. diff) is a problematic microbe because its has two key virulence factors, toxin A and toxin B. Toxin A is an enterotoxin, which can cause copious water, potassium, and bicarbonate losses. On the other hand, toxin B is a cytotoxin, which can cause damage to the cells. These toxins can be both asymptomatic or cause pseudomembranous colitis in an individual. C. diff is also an anaerobe gram-positive bacterium, which means that it can thrive in environments without oxygen. This is a dangerous factor for humans and animals. Additionally, C. diff is an opportunistic infection, meaning that the pathogen will most likely thrive when the immune system is weak, such as during or after taking an antibiotic drug. This disease can be induced by treatment with antibiotics or by disruption of the normal gastrointestinal flora. C. diff has now become largely common in the hospital and…show more content…
aureus microbe problematic is because it is the leading cause of nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections by gram-positive bacteria and is notoriously resistant to penicillin and many other commonly used antibiotics. It was actually recently reported that a strain of S. aureus is resistant to every known antibiotic in clinical usage. The emergence of antibiotic resistance strains of S. aureus, such as methicillin resistant staph aureus (MRSA), is becoming a greater problem. Since S. aureus has become resistant to most of the beta-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, is used to fight MRSA. However, there are now strains of S. aureus that are resistant to vancomycin, such as vancomycin intermediate staph aureus (VISA) and vancomycin resistant staph aureus (VRSA). This led to the development and use of a penicillinase resistant beta-lactam antibiotic, including oxacillin and flucloxacillin. Combination therapy with gentamicin can also be used to treat more serious infections, but it can have a high risk of kidney

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