Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens is a bacteria which are Gram-positive, endospore-forming anaerobes, that appear to be rod-shaped. They lack flagella, but they can still migrate across surfaces using a type of gliding motility that involves the formation of filaments of bacteria lined up in an end-to-end conformation. Clostridium perfringens bacteria is most commonly found in soil, and it the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. (1,2) C. perfringens most commonly causes food poisoning, and various types of gangrene, infections from this bacteria can cause necrosis, bacteremia, and emphysematous cholecystitis. Back before the 1890’s Clostridium perfringens used to be known as Clostridium welchii.
Gastroenterology Research & Practice, 1-6. doi: 10.1155/2016/2687605 Nanwa, N., Sander, B., Krahn, M., Daneman, N., Lu, H., Austin, P., Govindarajan, A., Rosella, L., Cadarette, M., & Kwong, J. (2017). A population-based matched cohort study examining the mortality and costs of patients with community-onset clostridium difficile infection identified using emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Plos ONE, 12(3), 1-13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172410 Ng, K., Ferreyra, J., Higginbottom, S., Lynch, J., Kashyap, P., Gopinath, S., Naidu, N., Choudhury, B., Weimer, B., Monack, D., & Sonnenburg, J. (2013).
perfringens infections are rare, especially after the legalization of therapeutic abortion, there are numerous accounts in the literature describing episodes occurring after cesarean section, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, endometrial ablation, abortion, molar pregnancy or vaginal delivery [56-67]. There is a particularly prominent role of C. perfringens in hospital-acquired gynecologic infection . Furthermore, as with C. septicum, there are reported cases of C. perfringens infection in the setting of choriocarcinoma as well as endometrial or ovarian cancer [68-70]. Several reports have documented C. perfringens isolates from vaginal and cervical cultures, with some finding a 0.8-8% prevalence in normal vaginal flora, a 1-9% prevalence postnatally, and up to a 29% prevalence after abortion [60, 67, 71, 72]. These prevalence rates may even underestimate prevalence: culture-independent methods including high-throughput sequencing techniques of 16S rRNA genes suggest that the vaginal microbiome is even more diverse than originally appreciated .
Docking studies of Nitroimidazo-oxazine with Pyridoxine 5'-Phosphate Oxidase M Sathish kumar1 , UCA Jaleel2 CSIR OSDD Research Unit , Bangalore Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be one of the world’s most debilitating and deadly pathogens. PA-824 is a nitroimidazole that has demonstrated bactericidal and sterilizing activity against drug-resistant and non drug-resistant tuberculosis. PA-824 is activated by either a bacterial enzyme or a cofactor, which is a compound that binds to a protein. This prodrug was used as a ligand to bind with the protein PDB ID:1XXO (Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase complexed with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate). Pyridoxine 5-phosphate oxidase is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate limited step of the
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff) are known to be anaerobic rod shaped gram positive bacteria which are capable of forming spores. They are known to be the cause of millions of worldwide infections on a yearly basis. They are primarily acquired from hospitals, with incidences of such infections gradually increasing over the last 20 years. They are capable of causing potential life threatening cases of diarrhoea. Although they were discovered in the intestinal flora of new born babies in the 1930s, they were not recognised as a major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea up until the 1970s.
Some patients experience disorientation and inattentiveness. The disease can also lead to stupor, coma and death if not treated appropriately & promptly. Other rare but lethal maternal complications include acute renal failure, pneumomediastinum, rhabdomyolysis, coagulopathy, sialorrhoea – constant salivation (“ice-cream bucket syndrome”) and central pontine myelinolysis19-24. It may also cause Mallory-Weiss tears and esophageal rupture 121,122. Hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with increased risk of low fetal birth weight25 .
Chromium (Cr) is one of the known environmental toxic pollutants in the world which is from group VIII element of the first transition series and has a hard brittle gray transition metal with atomic number 24 and relative atomic mass 51.99 g/mol. Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exit in several different forms and the most common forms are chromium, chromium (III) and chromium (IV). The major industrial application of chromium include the processes for making steel, chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning operations, and wood preserving (Guertin, 2004). According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR, (2012) Chromium can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, disposal of chromium-based products, and during the manufacturing process.
As an example, consider the treatment of patients with endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Although the mortality rate for this disease ranges from 25% to 47% , let us assume that in the population of interest, White males aged 30 to 60 the mortality rate is 38% with the standard antibiotic treatment of penicillin, methicillin, vancomycin and other antibiotics. However, a new drug has been developed that attacks the bacteria’s ability to protect itself from the human immune system rather than interfering with cell wall development. The question is this: What are the odds of dying with the new drug as opposed to the standard antibiotic therapy protocol? The odds ratio is a way of comparing whether the odds of a certain outcome is the same for two different groups.
Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.1 Chemistry of Chromium Chromium is the 22nd most abundant element in the crust of the earth with an average of 100 ppm. Chromium discovered in 1790 by a French chemist Louis Nicholas Vauquelin while he was experimenting a material known “Crocoite”- Lead chromate PbCrO4. Chromium is the first element in group 6 in the periodic table with atomic number of 24 and Cr symbol . It may occur in all oxidation states from”-2 to +6”, mainly as metallic (Cr0), trivalent (Cr+3) and Hexavalent (Cr+6) which is principally synthesized by the oxidation of the naturally occurring trivalent chromium; it is also highly toxic and carcinogenic. Trivalent chromium is an essential trace element that is required for
Cadmium is a ubiquitous heavy trace metal toxicant and is well known as an industrial pollutant. Exposures to cadmium have been reported to reduce male fertility. Chromium is an important heavy metal which possesses several industrial applications Occupational exposure to chromium leads to alteration of semen status and may adversely affect the reproductive success of exposed workers. Lead is the most significant toxin of the heavy metals. Industrial decisions, such as the addition of lead to paints, dyes, and gasoline, have created an epidemic of lead poisonings.