1. Introduction 1.1 Objective of the Research: The Objective of this research is twofold, first to quantify the information content of the cyclic voltammogram data and understand the kinetic parameters that are involved in redox reaction and simulate them using acquired information, also identify the post oxidation peak that occurs at slow scan rates in the presence of air. Second, to check the electrochemical reduction of nitrate ion at the surface of different working electrodes that are available in the lab at neutral and alkaline systems. 1.2 Importance of the Research: Ferrocene carboxylic acid, as an iron centered inorganic derivative of ferrocene, behaves as a simple and ideal reversible redox system and is commonly used as mediator with enzymes such as glucose oxidase. , , However, during extensive use of Ferrocene Carboxylic Acid, FCA, in this research study,
In this research paper, I am going to investigate on how the concentration of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) solution affects the volume of the gases (Oxygen gas and Chlorine gas) at the anode during the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. In my previous chemistry classes, I have learnt that concentration affects the majority of the gas produced at the anode. This made me wonder, how does the ratio of oxygen gas to chlorine gas produced at the anode vary at the electrodes. This made me formulate the research question: How does the concentration of Sodium Chloride solution affect the ratio of oxygen gas to chlorine gas produced at the anode during the electrolysis of Sodium Chloride solution? This area specifically interests me because it is still
This shows that sample A is having higher Cu concentration than sample B. Also, this can be seen in the result for the sample mean concentration (as shown in Figure 2) of sample A and B, which are 0.047 and 0.018 respectively. Calibration curve is a very useful method in analytical chemistry in order to determine or measure the concentration of a particular substance in a sample. As in this experiment, Cu is the concentration that was observed in tea substance. The method is used by comparing the sample of unknown concentration to a set of standard samples whose concentration is known as shown in Figure
Qualitative Analysis Testing on ions- Cations and anions can be identified in various different ways and on different levels. Many Qualitive analysis tests can be done to identify cations and anions through change of temperature and chemical reactions. The ‘Flame test’ is designed to identify a cation in a compound solution through changes of temperature, the cation can be identified by the color of the flame it produces. On the other hand, the ‘Precipitate test’ is designed to identify the anion in a compound solution this is done through the type of simple chemical reaction it produces. Cations are positively charged ions, there is only one type of cation.
Iron phostate, also extensively known as FePO4, was studied through a special type of transformation process known as neutron powder diffraction. The transformation process uses a temperature that ranges from 297K to 1073K. As long as it is within the low temperature range, it is defined as the ‘α’ phase. Otherwise, if it is within the high temperature range, it is defined as the ‘β’ phase. The iron phostate will change its tetrahedral form in the low temperature range to its octahedral form in high temperature range.
The reactions are exothermic, so large amount of heat energies are generated. Then cold charge materials like DRI or scrap is added to the furnace to utilize this enormous heat energy and thus to avoid overheating of the bath. After completion of the decarburization process, the top lance is moved away and the electrodes are brought into operating positions. In the arcing phase, the remaining solid charge material like scrap or DRI is fed into the bath to achieve the tapping weight. The temperature of the bath is adjusted and the heat is tapped into
It is applicable to think about the consequences of each of these ways of operation. For all three ways, the behavior of the cell is controlled by an equation similar to Equation 22-20 E_cell=(E_cathode- E_anode )+[(η_cathode-η_anode )-IR] Where the equation in the box means, E_appl is the applied potential from an external source, E_c and E_a are the reversible thermodynamic potential associated with cathode and anode, η_cc and η_ck are the over voltages due to concentration polarization and kinetic polarization at the cathode, η_ac and η_ak are the over voltages due to concentration polarization and kinetic polarization at the anode, I is the current and R is the resistance. Take note that the four over voltages always carry a negative sign because they are potentials that must be overcome in order for charge to pass through the cell. Take note the in most application, the metal is deposited on a weighed platinum cathode, and the increase in mass is determined. Electrogravimetry without potential control of the working electrode, involved deposition of the desired metallic element upon a previously weighed cathode, followed by subsequent reweighing of the electrode plus deposit to obtain by difference the quantity of the
We use a heat source and a thermometer to determine melting and boiling ranges. We use other equipment to measure densities, surface tensions, viscosities, and heats of reaction. Through classical elemental analysis, we determine what elements are present in a sample and what their mass ratios seem to be. In all of these experiments, we use some equipment but still make the actual experimental observations by eye. These limited experimental techniques can provide essential information nonetheless.
Annotated Bibliography: Analysis on A Model of Hydrodynamics Principles in Old Faithful Erwin Huang Shenzhen Vanke Meisha Academy I Introduction Studies in intermittent fountain is especially crucial for the natural circulation systems in nuclear power plants. During the occurrence of the intermittent fountain, the bullets are periodically gushed from the exit of the heating section and are then condensed in the non-heated passages to induce intermittent flow oscillations. The condensation process results in local negative pressure, causing a rapid return of the system fluid and water hammer impact, which may lead to damage to the pipeline system structure, so it is necessary for intermittent fountain in-depth study.
3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, there are two possibilities, either Sn1 or Sn2. In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction occurred because the unknown nucleophile attacked the atom that was negatively charged, the alkyl bromide.