Instead, the client consciously and rationally decides for themselves what is wrong and what should be done about it. The therapist is more of a friend or counselor who listens and encourages on an equal level. One reason why Rogers (1951) rejected interpretation was that he believed that, although symptoms did arise from past experience, it was more useful for the client to focus on the present and future than on the past. Rather than just liberating clients from their past, as psychodynamic therapists aim to do, Rogerians hope to help their clients to achieve personal growth and eventually to self
In such case, to have an effective counselling, certain strategies could be used. Firstly, I need to identify the causes and formation of the difficulty situation of my client. I should not involve my own personal emotions when analysing the situation. Next, clarification of the situation is essential. The clients should figure out themselves on how to face the situation.
Following data analysis, the researcher could restate their research question, thereafter present findings and conclusions. A sound methodology requires not only a summary of the findings, but acknowledgement of any weaknesses in the study. According to Yin (2003b) to achieve construct validity, the case study researcher will make use of multiple sources, internal validity; use logic models and do explanation building and for external validity, the use of theory. He adds that reliability will depend on the ability to develop a database. The reliability can be tested by finding out such things about the said
In qualitative research, the researcher interprets the data by developing a description, analyzing data and finally drawing conclusions about its meaning theoretically. The characteristics of qualitative research (Rossman and Rallis, 1998) cited in Creswell are: 1) Qualitative research usually done in the field. Meaning that the researcher should go to the field of the research object in order to collect the primary data. In this case, researcher will be able to know and understand deeply about the research object and gain better experience and got more detail data. 2) Qualitative research uses data collective which involve the participant actively and sensitively in the study.
During evaluation on clients, counsellors are required to reflect regularly at where to which they have helped in promotion of client change and growth, shown empathy and encouragement towards distressed clients. These are acknowledged as indicators of counsellors’ benevolent actions (Jungers & Gregoire, 2013). Counsellors must avoid to assume their clients with a paternalistic stance or in another word parentalism. It is because this will lead to assumption in prior by which they know better than the clients in the cases. Counsellors must balance their decisions in order to influence the client in their professional judgment.
They also keep their personal issues away from clients. Effective psychotherapist form working alliances with a range of clients. These alliances are used to form therapeutic bonds and trust between the client and therapist during the initial stage. Effective psychotherapists also seek to improve themselves and their skills at all times (Wampold,
The research requirements are to conduct a critical literature review, with the aim of analysing the two academic journals and one research report and, accordingly, draw conclusions. A literature review summarises, analyse and evaluate previous research available on the topic and, furthermore, presenting it in an organised way (Collis & Hussey, 2013). It should clearly cover the major articulated questions and problems in the field (Collis & Hussey, 2013). The question is thus why is a literature review done? • Demonstrate clear understanding of the research topic including theories and definitions • Identify the recognised thinkers • Discuss what research has been done in this area and evaluate it • Find gaps in the current research areas and formulate a research question • Identify methods to use in the specific research area • Insure to convince the reader that the research question is significant, important and interesting • Include up to date research material and, ensure it is relevant.
Anny, the inductive approach is appropriate for investigate the research topic. Firstly, it makes more sense to ask the questions that directly linking to the research objective, and then analyzing the data towards problem solving. For instance, in order to find out whether lacking of the knowledge and/or awareness of forecasting is an important cause for inaccuracy forecasting, structured interviews with people who are responsible for forecasting can be designed. Hence, the researcher can better understand what was going on and the nature of the problem. Meanwhile, by analyzing the interview data, the researcher may discover that there are other important reasons that lead to inaccurate forecasting.
• Design your research studies that answers the questions that you want answered. • Write the type of research proposal and report that puts you in command and control of the content of the research as well as the way in which the research should be done. 2 THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH Research is a process through which new knowledge is discovered. A theory, such as a theory of motivation, or development, or learning, for example, helps us to organize this new information into a coherent body, a set of related ideas that explain events that have occurred and predict events that may happen. High-quality research is characterized by many different attributes, many of which tend to be related to one another and also tend to overlap.
CHAPTER-II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Review of related literature in the concerned field is of greater significance in locating the research problem. Hence, it plays the pivotal role at the crucial juncture of planning of the study. Review of related literature is an intellectual pursuit, essential to the development of the problem and to find out an effective approach to its solution. Review of related literature means to locate, to read and to evaluate the past as well as current literature of the research concerned with the planned investigation. It is a serious step of research which includes a relevant literature more extensively.