During a period of low waves, the beach face becomes steeper and the bar tends to disappear or become discontinuous. These beaches rarely have more than one bar. Beaches of moderate slope are mainly composed of moderately fine sand. They may have a gravel berm at extreme high water. Where a bar exists, currents are always present in the channel shoreward of the bar.
Wave action has an impact on the communities of sandy beach ecosystems. However, the impacts vary between meiofauna and macrofauna. Macrofaunal communities tend to be found in areas of low wave action and, mostly, on the surface of the sand. Due to macrofauna being found in low wave action areas, they are often found towards the low tide mark. Meiofaunal communities tend to be found in areas of high wave action, but can be found in both areas.
However, due to the use of hard measures, downstream of the measures the erosion has UROSION Case Study 21 increased. In between the towns with a fixed coastline, bays seem to be developing due to this erosion. The sea defences seem to be creating artificial headlands because erosion on both sides continues. As time progresses this could mean that the headlands (towns) become more and more exposed to the force of the waves, while the coast in between the headlands will erode more and more until a stable bay is
They explained that these hazards occurred due to reflective beach morphotypes that are sheltered from waves by structures such as rocks or jetties development. Even though wave height is relatively low in these protected locations, the deep inshore water along steep-reflective beach-faces poses a high risk of swimming activities. In the middle and southern regions of the study area, beaches from Peramu (ST 4) to Kuala Pahang (ST 12) exhibits as intermediate and dissipative state during the six respective months. The intermediate and dissipative beaches are usually longer than the reflective beaches, with gentler slope gradient. This may due to the site specific and differential energy forces (lower) that act towards this area at a particular
Surfing Surfing, is a surface water sport where the surfer has to catch a wave and then ride it, usually towards the shore. Surfing waves are found mostly in oceans but they can also be found in lakes or in rivers in the form of standing wave or tidal bore. There are however also artificial waves that surfers can ride such as waves from boats or even artificial wave pools. Surfing is the general term for riding a wave and there are therefore a lot of ways to surf. In this essay we will be focusing on stand up surfing which is the most common type of surfing.
Remaining 2.5% of water is locked up in glacials and permafrost. So only a small fraction is available for use,but nobody wants to see the facts that effect humanity all over the world. I have made loads of researchs about using freshwater resources. These researchs literally dragged me into the invisible and unknown reality of the water crisis.If the reasons for the water crisis
Introduction: Marine ecosystem: In the earth’s aquatic ecosystem, Marine aqua ecosystem is also one among it. Life originated on around Earth started about 3.5 billion years ago in the oceans. Today, the number of organisms living there is unknown, merely which is very large and that only a few is known to humans. Around 18 million km² of land are protected globally, but oceans protect only 10% of this area, though oceans cover 71% of the Earth’s surface. The marine ecosystem can be sub categorized as rocky shores, oceans, estuaries, lagoons, mangroves, salt marshes, intertidal zones coral reefs, the deep sea, sea floor and submarine canyons.
The 1995GPA explicitly ensures the application of the precautionary approach to this issue. The 2001 Montreal declaration and 2012 Manila declaration emphasized the need of improving, accelerating and furthering the implementation process. Overall it is observed that attempts to address land based marine pollution at the global level have been made only in the form of less formal instruments. So its regulation remains weak at the global
In this irrigation system, there is no availability of water throughout the year. Inundation canals: Inundation canals are taken from rivers to receive water to the agriculture land only when the water level in the rivers has high potential e.g. floods. Only those flood plains are irrigated by inundated canals where the level of land slopes downward from the river bank. The