Ytterbium can be used to convert invisible infrared light into green or red light, which can be used in anti-forgery security inks and in bank notes. Ytterbium compounds absorb and give out light in the near infrared which can be used for examining biological tissue and solar cells (Stewart). An isotope of ytterbium, ytterbium- 169, is used in the medical field as a radiation source substitute for a portable X-ray machine where electricity is unavailable (Emsley). This isotope is also used as an alternative for Iodine-125 and Palladium-103 in the treatment of prostate cancer and for diagnostics in the gastrointestinal tract
Chromium (Cr) is one of the known environmental toxic pollutants in the world which is from group VIII element of the first transition series and has a hard brittle gray transition metal with atomic number 24 and relative atomic mass 51.99 g/mol. Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exit in several different forms and the most common forms are chromium, chromium (III) and chromium (IV). The major industrial application of chromium include the processes for making steel, chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning operations, and wood preserving (Guertin, 2004). According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR, (2012) Chromium can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, disposal of chromium-based products, and during the manufacturing process.
Metallic chemical element chemically active, soft white color, symbol Cs, is located in the first group of the periodic table which means that he belongs to a group of alkaline elements. Atomic number 55 and atomic weight 132.905, the melting point of 28.4 degrees Celsius and a boiling point of 671 degrees Celsius and density of 1.87 g / cm 3. Cesium was discovered in 1860 by the German chemist Robert Bunsen, German physicist Gustav Kirchoff during the use of the spectroscope when they analyzed the spectrum of mineral water. Characterized by the metal in the spectrum containing two bright lines in the blue along with several others in red, yellow, and green. Because of its ability to release electrons when exposed to light, it enters into
Trace metals those available in little quantity in environment. Trace metals in coastal environments, are resulting from three key sources (i) The contiguous watershed, (ii) The offshore marine environment, and (iii) Industrial and/or urban runoffs (Jones and Jordan, 1979). The Acid leachable trace metals are (Fe, Ni, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu,Cr) the fraction easily available in the environment absorbed by biota. Metals which are representing the least mobile form they are entrapped in crystal structure of minerals in residual fraction (Miretzky et al. 2011).
It includes all the solids which can pass through the filter pad of a Gooch Crucible. Industrial discharges, sewage, fertilizers, road runoff, and soil erosion are main sources of total solids. Total solids can be expressed as milligrams per liter (mg/L). Total solid measurements are useful as an indicator of the effect of runoff from construction, sewage treatment plant discharges and other sources. Total solids affect water clarity and will be higher in highly mineralized water, which result in unsuitability for many applications.
There are slight distribution of mud drapes. As can be seen at the left picture of figure 9 with 40x magnification that comes from the depth of 1600.90 meters, there are claystone in the range of A and 4-5. b. Based on the XRD data, the clay minerals in the facies consist of ilit, kaolinite, and chlorite which cover 11% of the rock compostion. The clay minerals when mixed with the water formation would release the cations which increase the conductivity of water formation. As can be seen at the left picture of figure 9, there is a distribution of the kaolinite in the range of H-J and 2. c. The burrowing texture that spread out across the facies reduce the resistivity values.
The average abundance of Ni in the earth’s crust is 1.2 ppm; in soils it is 2.5 ppm; in streams it is 1μg/L, and in groundwater it is <0.1 mg/L. Nickel is obtained chiefly from pyrrhotite and garnierite. The common aqueous species is Ni2+. In reducing conditions insoluble sulphide can form, while in aerobic
Chapter Two: Literature Review 2.1 Chemistry of Chromium Chromium is the 22nd most abundant element in the crust of the earth with an average of 100 ppm. Chromium discovered in 1790 by a French chemist Louis Nicholas Vauquelin while he was experimenting a material known “Crocoite”- Lead chromate PbCrO4. Chromium is the first element in group 6 in the periodic table with atomic number of 24 and Cr symbol . It may occur in all oxidation states from”-2 to +6”, mainly as metallic (Cr0), trivalent (Cr+3) and Hexavalent (Cr+6) which is principally synthesized by the oxidation of the naturally occurring trivalent chromium; it is also highly toxic and carcinogenic. Trivalent chromium is an essential trace element that is required for
Ground Water Pollution • Copper – Copper can be found naturally in rocks that are exposed from mining activity as well. In small amounts, copper in the water isn’t much of a problem, although it can be damaging to fish. It’s an essential element in human life in very small amounts, but too much can cause serious digestive problems and kidney dysfunction. • Fluoride – Fluoride occurs naturally like the other elements listed here, but it’s also added to municipal water to help strengthen bones and teeth. Too much of it can damage teeth, and very high amounts can seriously calcify bones and lead to terrible pain and irreversible damage.